International Space Station

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International Space Station
The International Space Station, as seen from Space Shuttle Endeavour in May 2011.
A silhouette of the ISS shown orbiting above the Earth. This image is suspended within an orange and purple shield, with the words 'International Space Station' above the image, and laurel leaves beneath.
ISS insignia
Station statistics
COSPAR ID 1998-067A
Call sign Alpha
Crew Fully crewed 6
Currently aboard 6
(Expedition 37)
Launch 1998–2020
Launch pad Baikonur 1/5 and 81/23
Kennedy LC-39
Mass approximately 450,000 kg (990,000 lb)
Length 72.8 m (239 ft)
Width 108.5 m (356 ft)
Height c. 20 m (c. 66 ft)
nadir–zenith, arrays forward–aft
(27 November 2009)Padron:Update after
Pressurised volume 837 m3 (29,600 cu ft)
(21 March 2011)
Atmospheric pressure 101.3 kPa (29.91 inHg, 1 atm)
Perigee 415 km (258 mi) AMSL[1]
Apogee 419 km (260 mi) AMSL[1]
Orbital inclination 51.65 degrees[1]
Average speed 7.66 kilometres per second (27,600 km/h; 17,100 mph)[1]
Orbital period 92.92 minutes[1]
Orbit epoch 19 October 2013[1]
Days in orbit 5824
()
Days occupied 5111
()
Number of orbits 85,394[1]
Orbital decay 2 km/month
Statistics as of 9 March 2011
(unless noted otherwise)
References: [1][2][3][4]
Configuration
The components of the ISS in an exploded diagram, with modules on-orbit highlighted in orange, and those still awaiting launch in blue or pink
Station elements magmula noong Disyembre 2011, but missing Pirs
(exploded view)

Ang International Space Station (ISS) ay isang space station o isang tinitirhang artipisyal na satellite sa mababang orbito ng mundo. Ito ang ikasiyam na space station na tinitirhan ng mga tripulante at sumusunod sa mga space station na Salyut, Almaz at Mir ng Sobyet o Ruso at Skylab ng Amerika. Ang IIS ay isang modular na istrukturang ang unang bahagi ay inilunsad noong 1998. [5] Ito ngayon ang pinakamalaking katawang artipisyal sa orbito at kadalasang makikita sa angkop na panahon ng hubad na mata mula sa mundo. [6] Ang ISS ay binubuo ng napresyong mga module, mga panlabas na truss, mga solar array at iba pa. Ang mga bahagi ng ISS ay inilusad ng mga Amerikanong Space Shuttle gayundin ng mga Rusong rocket na Proton at Soyuz rockets.[7] Ang mga limitasyon sa budget ay humantong sa pagsasama ng tatlong mga proyektong space station sa Hapones na module na Kibō at Canadian robotics. Noong 1993 ang ilang bahaging itinayong mga bahagi para sa Sobyet/Rusong space station na Mir-2, ang iminungkahing Amerikanong Freedom at iminungkahing Europeong Columbus ay nagsama sa isang multinasyonal na programme.[7]

Ang ISS ay nagsisilbing microgravity at kapaligirang pangkalawakang laboratoryo ng pananaliksik kung saan nagsasagawa ng mga eksperimento ang mga tripulante nito sa biyolohiya, biyolohiyang pantao, pisika, astronomiya, meteorolohiya at iba pa.[8][9][10] Ang station ay angkop sa pagsubok ng mga sistemang spacecraft at kasangkapan na kailangan para sa mga misyon sa buwan at Mars.[11]

Mga sanggunian[baguhin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Peat, Chris (19 October 2013). "ISS – Orbit". Heavens-Above. http://www.heavens-above.com/orbit.aspx?satid=25544. Hinango noong 19 October 2013. 
  2. "STS-132 Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. 7 May 2010. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/451029main_sts132_press_kit.pdf. Hinango noong 19 June 2010. 
  3. "STS-133 FD 04 Execute Package". NASA. 27 February 2011. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/521138main_fd04_ep.pdf. Hinango noong 27 February 2011. 
  4. "NASA — Facts and Figures — International Space Station". NASA. 21 March 2011. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/onthestation/facts_and_figures.html. Hinango noong 9 April 2011. 
  5. "Central Research Institute for Machine Building (FGUP TSNIIMASH) Control of manned and unmanned space vehicles from Mission Control Centre Moscow". Russian Federal Space Agency. ftp://130.206.92.88/Espacio/Mesa%20Redonda%205%20-%20R3%20-%20TSNIIMASH%20-%20V%20M%20IVANOV.pdf. Hinango noong 26 September 2011. 
  6. "NASA Sightings Help Page". Spaceflight.nasa.gov. 30 November 2011. http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/help.html. Hinango noong 1 May 2012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 John E. Catchpole (17 June 2008). The International Space Station: Building for the Future. Springer-Praxis. ISBN 978-0-387-78144-0. 
  8. "International Space Station Overview". ShuttlePressKit.com. 3 June 1999. http://www.shuttlepresskit.com/ISS_OVR/index.htm. Hinango noong 17 February 2009. 
  9. "Fields of Research". NASA. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original noong 25 March 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080123150641/http://pdlprod3.hosc.msfc.nasa.gov/A-fieldsresearch/index.html. 
  10. "Getting on Board". NASA. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original noong 8 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071208091537/http://pdlprod3.hosc.msfc.nasa.gov/B-gettingonboard/index.html. 
  11. "ISS Research Program". NASA. http://spaceflightsystems.grc.nasa.gov/Advanced/ISSResearch/. Hinango noong 27 February 2009. [patay na kawing]