Pretender

Mula sa Wikipediang Tagalog, ang malayang ensiklopedya
Tumalon sa: nabigasyon, hanapin

Ang pretender (Ingles; pretendiyente kung hihiramin sa Kastila) ay isang mang-aangkin sa isang monarkiyang posisyon (trono) na pinawalang-bisa na o hawak na ng ibang tao. Ang termino ay nanggaling sa salitang "pretend"; na ang kahulugan ay magpakunwari (magpakunwaring monarko sa ganito). Sa Ingles, nanggaling ang "Pretender" sa salitang prétendre na Wikang Pranses , na ang kahulugan ay "to put forward, to profess or claim". Ngunit sa ganitong kahulugan, ang mga itinuturing Monarkong Pretender ay may legal na basehan (halimbawa: bilang kamag-anak ng monarko) para umangkin ng trono, habang ang taong Pretender ay umaangkin din sa trono ng walang basehan.

Mga Kasalukuyang Pretender[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Europa[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Bansa

Pretender

Ipinanganak

Pretender simula

Relasyon sa dating monarkiya

Sambahayan

Tagapag-mana

Ipinanganak

Flag of Albania (1934-1939).svg Albania Crown Prince Leka 1939 1961 anak ni Zog I (pinoroklama ang sarili bilang hari 1928-1939, sariling ipinatapon mula 1961) Zogu Prince Leka 1982
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary Crown Prince Otto[1] 1912 1922 anak ni Charles I (Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary etc. from 1916 to 1918) Habsburg-Lorraine Arsoduke Karl 1961
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria Simeon II[2] 1937 1946 Tsar from 1943 to 1946 Wettin
(Saxe-Coburg and Gotha line)
Kardam, Prince of Turnovo 1962
Flag of courland.svg Courland Prince Ernst-Johann Biron of Courland 1940 1982 descendant of Ernst Johann von Biron (Duke from 1737 to 1740 and 1763 to 1769) Biron Prince Michael 1944
Flag of the Kingdom of Croatia.svg Croatia
(Habsburg)
Crown Prince Otto[1] 1912 1922 anak ni Charles I (King from 1916 to 1918) Habsburg-Lorraine Archduke Karl 1961
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Croatia
(Savoy)
Crown Prince Amedeo, Duke of Savoy 1943 1948 anak ni Tomislav II (King from 1941 to 1943, formally renounced all rights in 1943) Savoy Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta 1967
Flag of England.svg England
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Flag of Finland.svg Finland Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse 1926 1989 Apo ni Kaarle I, elected King from 1918 to 1918 (with an irredentistic claim to Estonia) Hesse-Kassel Donatus 1966
England Arms 1603.svg France
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Pavillon royal de France.svg France
(Legitimist)
Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou 1974 1989 tenth-generation descendant of Louis XIV (King from 1643 to 1715) Bourbon Juan Carlos I of Spain 1938
Flag of France.svg France
(Orléanist and Unionist)
Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France 1933 1999 great-great-great-grandson of Louis-Philippe of France (King from 1830 to 1848) Orléans
(sub-line of the House of Bourbon)
François, Count of Clermont 1961
France
(Bonapartist)
Charles Napoléon[3] 1950 1997 great-great-grandnephew of Napoléon I (self-proclaimed Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814 and in 1815) Bonaparte Jean-Christophe Napoléon 1986
Hellenic Kingdom Flag 1935.svg Greece
(Glücksburg)
Constantine II 1940 1973 Hari mula 1964 hanggang 1973 Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
(sub-line of the House of Oldenburg)
Crown Prince Pavlos 1967
Greece
(Wittelsbach)
Prince Leopold 1943 1999 Great-great-nephew of Othon I, King 1832-1862 Wittelsbach Manuel 1972
Flag of Gwynedd.png Gwynedd Ieuan ab Ieuan 1943 1968 patrilinear descendent of Owain Gwynedd (King from 1137-1170) Aberffraw Dafydd Ieuan ab Ieuan 1977
St Patrick's saltire.svg Ireland
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
Flag of Mide.png Ireland
(Gaelic)
Deasmumhain Ó Conchubhair Donn, Prince of Connácht 1938 2000 patrilinear descendants of Ruaidrí mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, last High King of Ireland, d.1198. Ó Conchubhair Pilip Aodh Ó Conchubhair (Philip Hugh) 1967
Flag of Lithuania (1918-1940).svg Lithuania Wilhelm Albert, Duke of Urach 1957 1991 apo ni Mindaugas II, nominal and elected King from 1918 to 1918 (with an irredentistic claim to Latvia) Urach
(a morganatic subline of the House of Württemberg)
Prince Karl Philipp 1992
Flag of the Isle of Mann.svg Mann Simon Egerton Scrope 1934 descendant of William le Scrope (King from 1392 to 1399) Scrope Harry Scrope 1974
Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918 & 1941-1944).svg Montenegro Crown Prince Nikola 1944 1986 great-grandson of Nikola I (King from 1910 to 1918) Petrović-Njegoš Hereditary Prince Boris 1980
Flag Portugal (1830).svg Portugal Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza 1945 1976 great-grandson of Miguel I (King from 1828 to 1834) Braganza
(male-line descent from the House of Capet)
Infante Afonso, Prince of Beira 1996
Flag of Romania.svg Romania Michael I 1921 1947 King from 1927 to 1930 and from 1940 to 1947 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Frederick William, Prince of Hohenzollern
(via last royal constitution)
1924
Princess Margarita
(via post-abolition family law)
1949
Paul-Philippe Hohenzollern 1948 2006 grandson of Carol II (King from 1930 to 1940)
descended of an annulled Hohenzollern marriage
Carol Ferdinand 2010
Flag of Russia.svg Russia Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna 1953 1992 descendant of Alexander II (Tsar from 1855 to 1881) Romanov
(a sub-line of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a sub-line of the House of Oldenburg)
Grand Duke George Mikhailovich 1981
Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia 1922 1992 descendant of Nicholas I (Tsar from 1825 to 1855) Prince Dmitri Romanovich 1926
Flag of Scotland.svg Scotland
(Jacobite)
Franz, Duke of Bavaria 1933 1996 eleventh-generation descendant of Charles I (King from 1625 to 1649) Wittelsbach Max, Duke in Bavaria 1937
State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg Serbia
(Obrenović)
Crown Prince Nikola 1944 1986 grandson of Prince Mirko of Montenegro, relative and designated heir of Alexander I of Serbia Petrović-Njegoš Hereditary Prince Boris 1980
Serbia
(Karađorđević)
Crown Prince Alexander 1945 1970 anak ni King Peter II, King from 1934 to 1945. Karađorđević Hereditary Prince Peter 1980
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spain
(Carlist)
Carlos Hugo, Count of Montemolin 1930 1977 sons of Xavier, Duke of Parma, declared regent by Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime Bourbon Carlos, Duke of Madrid 1970
Sixtus, Duke of Aranjuez 1940 1979
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslavia[4] Crown Prince Alexander 1945 1970 anak ni Peter II (King from 1934 to 1945) Karađorđević Hereditary Prince Peter 1980

Mga Pretender na Supling ng mga Monarko[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

May mga indibidwal din na umaangkin na sila ay nagmula sa mga monarkong lahi.

Sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Otto von Habsburg "renounced" his claim in order to pass freely into Austria. However, he continues to act (and is supported) as Pinuno ng Samabahayan ng Habsburg.
  2. Simeon was democratically elected as Prime Minister of Bulgaria in June 2001 under the name Simeon Sakskoburggotski, and served from July 2001 to August 2005.
  3. His son Prince Jean-Christophe was appointed heir in the will of his grandfather Prince Louis Napoléon
  4. After the breakup of Yugoslavia the present-day states are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.