Pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng mga pagbago ng "Primates"

Jump to navigation Jump to search
sanggunian at nakabaong seksiyong isasalinwika
(ayon sa lingvosoft)
(sanggunian at nakabaong seksiyong isasalinwika)
{{Taxobox
| name = PrimatePrimado<ref name="MSW3">{{MSW3 Groves|pages=111–184|id=12100001}}</ref>
| fossil_range = [[Huling Paleoseno]]&ndash;Kamakailan, {{Fossil range|58|0}}
| image = Olive baboon1.jpg
| range_map_caption = Range of the nonhuman primates (green)
}}
Ang mga '''primado'''<ref name=Lingvo>[http://www.lingvozone.com/main.jsp?action=translation&do=dictionary&language_id_from=23&language_id_to=38&word=primate ''primate'': unggoy, primado], lingvozone.com</ref> o '''primate'''<ref group=tb>bigkas: /pri-ma-te/; mula sa Espanyol na '''[http://es.wiktionary.org/wiki/primate#Sustantivo_masculino primate]'''</ref> ay isang pangkat ng mga [[mamalya]]ng naglalaman ng lahat ng mga [[lemur]], mga [[unggoy]], at mga [[bakulaw]] na kabilang ang mga [[tao]]. Mayroong mga umaabot sa 400 mga [[uri]] ng mga primato. Kahawig ng tao ang lahat ng mga primato sa ilang kaparaanan o katangian. Mayroon silang mga kamay na may limang mga daliri, mga kuko (karamihan sa ibang mga hayop ang may mga [[pangkahig]]). Nahahati ang mga primato sa dalawang mga grupo: ang [[Strepsirrhini]] at ang [[Haplorrhini]]. Kabilang sa Haplorrhini ang mga [[unggoy]], mga [[tarsier]] at mga bakulaw, kabilang ang mga tao. Kabilang sa Strepsirrhini ang mga [[lemur]], mga [[loris]], mga [[galago]] (kilala rin bilang mga "[[sanggol ng palumpong]]") at ang [[aye-aye]].
 
<!----
== TalababaBehavior ==
 
=== Social systems ===
Primates are among the most social of animals, forming pairs or family groups, uni-male harems, and multi-male/multi-female groups.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Kappeler|first=Peter|coauthors=C. van Schaik|title=Primate social systems|year=2003}}</ref> [[Richard Wrangham]] stated that [[Social structure|social systems]] of non-human primates are best classified by the amount of movement by females occurring between groups.<ref>{{cite book |author=Wrangham, R. W. |authorlink=Richard Wrangham |chapter=Mutualism, kinship and social evolution |year=1982 |title=Current Problems in Sociobiology |publisher=Cambridge University Press |pages=269–289 |isbn=0-521-24203-7}}</ref> He proposed four categories:
* Female transfer systems&nbsp;– females move away from the group in which they were born. Females of a group will not be closely related whereas males will have remained with their natal groups, and this close association may be influential in social behavior. The groups formed are generally quite small. This organization can be seen in chimpanzees, where the males, who are typically related, will cooperate in defense of the group's territory. Among New World Monkeys, [[spider monkey]]s and [[muriqui]]s use this system.<ref>{{cite book|title=Primates in Perspective|author=Fiore, A. D. & Campbell, C. J.|chapter=The Atelines|year=2007|pages=175|publisher=Oxford University Press|editor=Campbell, C. J., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K. C., Panger, M. & Bearder, S. K.|isbn=978-0-19-517133-4}}</ref>
[[Image:Jigokudani hotspring in Nagano Japan 001.jpg|thumb|right|[[Japanese macaque]]s bathing together in [[Jigokudani Hot Springs]]]]
 
* Male transfer systems&nbsp;– while the females remain in their natal groups, the males will emigrate as adolescents. [[Polygyny|Polygynous]] and multi-male societies are classed in this category. Group sizes are usually larger. This system is common among the [[ring-tailed lemur]], [[capuchin monkey]]s and [[Cercopithecinae|cercopithecine monkeys]].<ref name="Strier2007" />
* Monogamous species&nbsp;– a male–female bond, sometimes accompanied by a juvenile offspring. There is shared responsibility of parental care and territorial defense. The offspring leaves the parents' territory during adolescence. [[Gibbon]]s essentially use this system, although "monogamy" in this context does not necessarily mean absolute sexual fidelity.<ref>{{cite book|title=Primates in Perspective|author=Bartlett, T. Q.|chapter=The Hylobatidae|year=2007|editor=Campbell, C. J., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K. C., Panger, M. & Bearder, S. K.|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-517133-4|pages=283}}</ref>
* Solitary species&nbsp;– often males who defend territories that include the home ranges of several females. This type of organization is found in the prosimians such as the [[slow loris]]. [[Orangutan]]s do not defend their territory but effectively have this organization.<ref>{{cite book|title=Primates in Perspective|author=Knott, C. D. & Kahlenberg, S. M.|chapter=Orangutans in Perspective|year=2007|editor=Campbell, C. J., Fuentes, A., MacKinnon, K. C., Panger, M. & Bearder, S. K.|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-517133-4|pages=294}}</ref>
 
Other systems are known to occur as well. For example, with [[howler monkey]]s both the males and females typically transfer from their natal group on reaching sexual maturity, resulting in groups in which neither the males nor females are typically related.<ref name="Sussman2003" /> Some prosimians, [[Colobinae|colobine]] monkeys and [[Callitrichinae|callitrichid]] monkeys use this system.<ref name="Strier2007" />
[[Image:Three chimpanzees with apple.jpg|thumb|left|[[Chimpanzee]]s are social animals.]]
 
Primatologist [[Jane Goodall]], who studied in the [[Gombe Stream National Park]], noted [[fission-fusion society|fission-fusion societies]] in chimpanzees.<ref>{{cite journal | title=Noninvasive paternity assignment in Gombe chimpanzees | author=Constable | journal=Molecular Ecology | year=2001 | volume=10 | issue=5 | pages=1279–1300 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-294X.2001.01262.x | pmid=11380884 | author-separator=, | author2=J. L. | display-authors=2 | last3=Goodall | first3=Jane | last4=Pusey | first4=Anne E.}}</ref> There is ''fission'' where the main group splits up to forage during the day, then ''fusion'' when the group returns at night to sleep as a group. This social structure can also be observed in the [[Hamadryas baboon]],<ref name="Rowe1996">{{cite book|title=The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates|author=Rowe, N.|year=1996|publisher=Pogonias Press|isbn=0-9648825-0-7|pages=4, 139, 143, 154, 185, 223}}</ref> [[spider monkey]]s<ref name="Sussman2003" /> and the [[bonobo]].<ref name="Rowe1996" /> The [[gelada]] has a similar social structure in which many smaller groups come together to form temporary herds of up to 600 monkeys.<ref name="Rowe1996" />
 
These social systems are affected by three main ecological factors: distribution of resources, [[Group size measures|group size]] and predation.<ref name="vertlife">{{cite book |author=Pough, F. W., Janis, C. M. & Heiser, J. B. |title=Vertebrate Life |chapter=Primate Societies |year=2005 |origyear=1979 |edition=7th |publisher= Pearson |pages=621–623 |isbn=0-13-127836-3}}</ref> Within a social group there is a balance between cooperation and competition. Cooperative behaviors include [[social grooming]] (removing [[Parasitism|skin parasites]] and cleaning wounds), food sharing, and collective defense against predators or of a territory. Aggressive behaviors often signal competition for availability of food, sleeping sites or mates. Aggression is also used in establishing [[dominance hierarchy|dominance hierarchies]].<ref name="vertlife" /><ref>[[Barbara Smuts|Smuts, B.B.]], Cheney, D.L. Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., & Struhsaker, T.T. (Eds.) (1987). ''Primate Societies''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for articles on the structure and function of various primate societies.</ref>
{{Clear}}
----->
== Mga sanggunian ==
{{reflist|group=tb}}
 
166,389

edits

Menu ng paglilibot