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Colombia: Pagkakaiba sa mga binago

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==Pamahalaan at pulitika==
Ang pamahalaan ng Colombia ay tumatagal ng lugar sa loob ng balangkas ng isang pampanguluhan participatory demokratikong republika bilang itinatag sa Saligang-Batas ng 1991. Alinsunod sa mga prinsipyo ng paghihiwalay ng mga kapangyarihan, ang pamahalaan ay nahahati sa tatlong sangay: ang ehekutibo sangay, ang sangay na pambatasan at panghukuman branch. [134] Bilang pinuno ng ehekutibong sangay, ang Pangulo ng Colombia nagsisilbing parehong pinuno ng estado at pinuno ng pamahalaan, kasunod ang Vice President at ng Konseho ng mga ministro. president ay inihalal sa pamamagitan ng popular na boto upang maglingkod apat na taong termino (In 2015 ang Colombia Congress naaprubahan ang pagpapawalang-bisa ng isang 2004 constitutional susog na eliminated ang isa-term na limitasyon para sa pangulo). Sa antas ng panlalawigan ehekutibong kapangyarihan ay vested sa department governors, municipal mayors at lokal na mga administrator para sa mas maliit administrative subdibisyon, tulad ng corregimientos o comunas. Lahat rehiyon na halalan ay gaganapin isang taon at limang buwan matapos ang pampanguluhan halalan. Ang pambatasan sangay ng pamahalaan ay kinakatawan nationally ng Kongreso, isang bicameral institusyon na binubuo ng isang 166-seat Chamber of Representatives at isang 102-seat Senado. Ang Senado ay inihalal nationally at ang Chamber of Representatives ay inihalal sa electoral distrito. Ang mga miyembro ng parehong kapulungan ay inihahalal upang maglingkod apat na taon mga tuntunin ng dalawang buwan bago ang president, din sa pamamagitan ng popular na boto.
The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential participatory democratic republic as established in the Constitution of 1991. In accordance with the principle of separation of powers, government is divided into three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch.[134]
 
As the head of the executive branch, the President of Colombia serves as both head of state and head of government, followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers. The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year term (In 2015 the Colombia’s Congress approved the repeal of a 2004 constitutional amendment that eliminated the one-term limit for presidents).[135] At the provincial level executive power is vested in department governors, municipal mayors and local administrators for smaller administrative subdivisions, such as corregimientos or comunas.[136] All regional elections are held one year and five months after the presidential election.[137][138]
 
The legislative branch of government is represented nationally by the Congress, a bicameral institution comprising a 166-seat Chamber of Representatives and a 102-seat Senate.[139][140] The Senate is elected nationally and the Chamber of Representatives is elected in electoral districts.[141] Members of both houses are elected to serve four-year terms two months before the president, also by popular vote.
 
==Heograpya==
Mga Communi ng Colombia ay characterized sa pamamagitan ng ang anim na pangunahing rehiyon ng natural na magkaroon ng kani-kanilang natatanging katangiansa rehiyon ng Andes na ibinahagi sa Ecuador at Venezuela; ang Pacific baybayin rehiyon na ibinahagi sa Panama at Ecuador; ang Caribbean baybayin rehiyon na ibinahagi sa Venezuela at Panama; Los Llanos (kapatagan) ibinahagi sa Venezuela; ang rehiyon ng ang gubat ng Amazon na ibinahagi sa Venezuela, Brazil, Peru at Ecuador; ang mga insular na lugar, kabilang dito ang pulo sa Pacific Ocean at Atlantico.colombia pangsaka sa hilagang-kanluran ng Panama; sa silangan ng Venezuela at Brazil; sakatimugan ng Ecuador at Peru; Ito ay nagtatatag ng malapit sa dagat hangganan nito sa kalapit na mga bansa sa pamamagitan ng pitong mga kasunduan sa ang Caribbean Sea at tatlo sa Pacific Ocean. [12] ito ay namamalagi sa pagitan ng latitudes 12° N at 4 ° S at haba 67 ° at 79 ° w.Parte ng singsing ng apoy, isang rehiyon ng mundo napapailalim sa lindol at pagputok, [119] Colombia ay dominado sa pamamagitanng Andes (na naglalaman ng karamihan sa mga sentrong lungsod ng bansa). Lampas ang Colombian Massif (sa Timog-kanlurang Cauca at Nariño departamento) ay Hatiin sa tatlong sangay na kilala bilang Cordillera (kabundukan): ang Cordillera Occidental, tumatakbo sa kahabaan ng baybayin ng Pasipiko at sa pagitan ng lungsod ngCali; Cordillera Central, tumatakbo sa pagitan ng Cauca at Magdalena ilog lambak (sa kanluran at silangan ayon sa pagkakabanggit) at sa pagitan ng mga lungsod ng Medellín, Manizales, Pereira at Armenia; at ang Cordillera Oriental, iniaabot sa hilagang-silangan ng Tangway ng la Guajira at tulad sa Bogota, Bucaramanga at Cucuta.picos ng mga kanlurang hanay ng bundok sa 4,700 m (15.420 talampakan), at sa mgaCordillera Central at Cordillera Oriental maabot sila ng 5,000 m (16.404 ft). 2,600 m(8530 paa), Bogotá ay ang pinakamataas na lungsod ng laki nito sa mundo. Sa silangan ng ang Andes ay matatagpuan ang savanna ng Llanos, bahagi ng basin ng ilogOrinoco at sa malayong South East, ang gubat ng Amazon. Mga lowlands kabilang ang mahigit sa kalahati ng teritoryo ng Colombia, ngunit kung saan ay naglalamanng mas mababa sa 6% ng populasyon. Sa hilaga ang baybayin ng ang Caribbean, may 21.9% ng populasyon at ang mga lokasyon ng mga pinakamahalagang lungsodng port ng Barranquilla at daungan ng Cartagena, na karaniwang binubuo ng mababang kapatagan, ngunit naglalaman din ang mga hanay ng bundok ng Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, na kinabibilangan ng mga pinakamataas na bundok sa bansa (Pico Cristobal Colón at Pico Simón Bolívar) at ang La Guajira disyerto. Sa kabilang banda ang makitid at hindi Pacific baybayin mababa, na-back sa pamamagitan ng mga bundok ng Serranía de Baudó, di gaanong mataong at sakop na may makapal na mga halaman. Ay ang pangunahing daungan sa Pacific Buenaventura.Los mga pangunahing ilog ng Colombia ay sa Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, Atrato, Meta, Putumayoat Caqueta. Colombia ay may apat na pangunahing pagpapatuyo sistema: pagpapatuyo ng Pasipiko, ang Caribbean maubos, basin ng sa Orinoco at Amazon basin. Angmga ilog sa Amazon at Orinoco markahan ang mga limitasyon sa Colombia Venezuela at Peru ayon sa pagkakabanggit. Protektado ang cover ng mga lugar at mga pambansang parke «system» isang lugar ng humigit-kumulang sa 14,268,224 ektarya(142,682.24 km2) at 12.77% ng mga Colombian na teritoryo. Kumpara sa isang kalapit na bansa, ang mga rate ng deforestation sa Colombia ay pa rin relatibong mababa. Colombia ang anim na bansa sa daigdig sa pamamagitan ng lawak ng kabuuang renewable freshwater supply at pa rin ay may malaking reserba ng sariwang tubig.
The geography of Colombia is characterized by its six main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains) shared with Venezuela; the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular area, comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[118]
 
Colombia is bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[11] it established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven agreements on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean.[12] It lies between latitudes 12°N and 4°S, and longitudes 67° and 79°W.
 
Part of the Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions,[119] Colombia is dominated by the Andes (which contain the majority of the country's urban centres). Beyond the Colombian Massif (in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches known as cordilleras (mountain ranges): the Cordillera Occidental, running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali; the Cordillera Central, running between the Cauca and Magdalena River valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales, Pereira and Armenia; and the Cordillera Oriental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.[118][120][121]
 
Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 4,700 m (15,420 ft), and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 5,000 m (16,404 ft). At 2,600 m (8,530 ft), Bogotá is the highest city of its size in the world.[118]
 
East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 6% of the population. To the north the Caribbean coast, home to 21.9% of the population and the location of the major port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and the La Guajira Desert. By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are sparsely populated and covered in dense vegetation. The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura.[118][120][121]
 
The main rivers of Colombia are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, Atrato, Meta, Putumayo and Caquetá. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers mark limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively.[122]
 
Protected areas and the "National Park System" cover an area of about 14,268,224 hectares (142,682.24 km2) and account for 12.77% of the Colombian territory.[123] Compared to neighboring countries, rates of deforestation in Colombia are still relatively low.[124] Colombia is the sixth country in the world by magnitude of total renewable freshwater supply, and still has large reserves of freshwater.
 
=Etimolohiya=
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