Dhammapada

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Ang Dhammapada (Pāli; Padron:Lang-pra Dhamapada;[1] Sanskrit: धर्मपद Dharmapada) ay isang kalipunan ng mga kasabihan ni Gautama Buddha sa anyong talata at ang isa sa pinakamalawakang binabasa at pinakilalang mga kasulatang Budista. [2] Ang orihinal na bersiyon ng Dhammapada ay nasa Khuddaka Nikaya na isang dibisyon ng Kanon na Pali ng Budismong Theravada.

Kasaysayan[baguhin]

Ipinaliwanag ng skolar at komentador na Budista na si Buddhaghosa na ang bawat kasabihang naitala sa kalipunang ito ay ginawa sa isang ibang okasyon bilang tugon sa isang walang katulad na sitwasyon na lumitaw sa buhay ni Buddha at kanyang pamayanang monastiko. Ang kanyang komentaryong Dhammapada Atthakatha ay nagtatanghal ng mga detalye ng mga pangyayaring ito at isang mayamang mapagkukunan para sa buhay at mga kapanahunan ni Buddha.[3]

Ayon sa tradisyon, ang mga talata ni Dhammapada ay sinalita ni Buddha sa iba't ibang mga okasyon. [4][5] Ang tekstong ito ay bahagi ng Khuddaka Nikaya ng Sutta Pitaka bagaman ang higit sa kalahati ng mga talata ay umiiral sa ibang mga bahagi ng Kanon na Pali.

Bagaman ang edisyong Pāli ang pinakakilala, ang isang bilang ng mga bersiyon nito ay umiiral:[6]

Ang Dhammapada ay itinuturing na isa sa pinakasikat na mga piraso ng panitikang Pali na Theravada[2] Ang isang A edisyong kritikal ng Dhammapada ay nilikha ng skolar na Danish na si Viggo Fausbøll noong 1855 na naging ang unang tekstong Pali na tumanggap ng ganitong pagsisiyasat ng pamayanang akademikong Europeo. [14]

Organisasyon[baguhin]

AngPali Dhammapada ay naglalaman ng mga 423 talata sa 26 kabanata.[15][16]

I. Ang mga Talatang Kambal (Yamaka-vaggo)
II. Tungkol sa Kaalaban (Appamāda-vaggo)
III. Kaisipan (Citta-vaggo)
IV. Mga Bulaklak (Puppha-vaggo)
V. Ang Hangal (Bāla-vaggo)
VI. Ang Taong Matalino (Paṇḍita-vaggo)
VII. Ang Kapita-pitagan (Arahanta-vaggo)
VIII. Ang mga Libo(Sahassa-vaggo)
IX. Masama (Pāpa-vaggo)
X. Kaparusahan (Daṇḍa-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XI. Matandang Edad (Jarā-vaggo)
XII. Sarili (Atta-vaggo)
XIII. Ang Mundo (Loka-vaggo)
XIV. Ang Buddha — Ang Namulat(Buddha-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XV. Kaligayahan (Sukha-vaggo)
XVI. Kasiyahan (Piya-vaggo)
XVII. Poot (Kodha-vaggo)
XVIII. Kawalang Kadalisayan(Mala-vaggo)
XIX. Ang Matuwid (Dhammaṭṭha-vaggo)
XX. Ang Daan(Magga-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XXI. Sari-sari (Pakiṇṇaka-vaggo)
XXII. Ang Pababang Kurso (Niraya-vaggo)
XXIII. Ang Elepante (Nāga-vaggo)
XXIV. Uhaw (Taṇhā-vaggo) (see excerpt below)
XXV. Ang Pulubi (Bhikkhu-vaggo)
XXVI. Ang Brāhmana (Brāhmaṇa-vaggo)

Mga sanggunian[baguhin]

  1. See, e.g., the Gāndhārī Dharmapada (GDhp), verses 301, 302, in: Brough (1962/2001), p. 166; and, Ānandajoti (2007), ch. 4, "Pupphavagga" (retrieved 25 November 2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C3-Comparative-Dhammapada/CD-04-Puppha.htm).
  2. 2.0 2.1 See, for instance, Buswell (2003): "rank[s] among the best known Buddhist texts" (p. 11); and, "one of the most popular texts with Buddhist monks and laypersons" (p. 627). Harvey (2007), p. 322, writes: "Its popularity is reflected in the many times it has been translated into Western languages"; Brough (2001), p. xvii, writes: "The collection of Pali ethical verses entitled Dhammapada is one of the most widely known of early Buddhist texts."
  3. This commentary is translated into English as Buddhist Legends by E W Burlingame.
  4. Pertinent episodes allegedly involving the historic Buddha are found in the commentary (Buddharakkhita & Bodhi, 1985, p. 4). In addition, a number of the Dhammapada's verses are identical with text from other parts of the Pali tipitaka that are directly attributed to the Buddha in the latter texts. For instance, Dhammapada verses 3, 5, 6, 328-330 can also be found in MN 128 (Ñāamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 1009-1010, 1339 n. 1187).
  5. "By distilling the complex models, theories, rhetorical style and sheer volume of the Buddha's teachings into concise, crystalline verses, the Dhammapada makes the Buddhist way of life available to anyone...In fact, it is possible that the very source of the Dhammapada in the third century B.C.E. is traceable to the need of the early Buddhist communities in India to laicize the ascetic impetus of the Buddha's original words.", Wallis (2004), p. xi.
  6. Buddhist Studies Review, 6, 2, 1989, page 153, reprinted in Norman, Collected Papers, volume VI, 1996, Pali Text Society, Bristol, page 156
  7. Brough (2001), pp. 44–45, summarizes his findings and inferences as:
    "... We can with reasonable confidence say that the Gāndhārī text did not belong to the schools responsible for the Pali Dhammapada, the Udānavarga, and the Mahāvastu; and unless we are prepared to dispute the attribution of any of these, this excludes the Sarvāstivādins and the Lokottaravāda-Mahāsānghikas, as well as the Theravādins (and probably, in company with the last, the Mahīśāsakas). Among possible claimants, the Dharmaguptakas and Kāśyapīyas must be considered as eligible, but still other possibilities cannot be ruled out."
  8. Brough (2001). The original manuscript is believed to have been written in the first or second century CE.
  9. See, e.g., Cone (1989).
  10. Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XXIII, pages 113f
  11. Brough (2001), pp. 38-41, indicates that the Udanavarga is of Sarvastivadin origin.
  12. Hinüber (2000), p. 45, para. 89, notes:
    More than half of [the Dhammapada verses] have parallels in corresponding collections in other Buddhist schools, frequently also in non-Buddhist texts. The interrelation of these different versions has been obscured by constant contamination in the course of the text transmission. This is particularly true in case of one of the Buddhist Sanskrit parallels. The Udānavarga originally was a text corres[p]onding to the Pāli Udāna.... By adding verses from the Dhp [Dhammapada] it was transformed into a Dhp parallel in course of time, which is a rare event in the evolution of Buddhist literature.
  13. Law (1930), p. iv; and, Ānandajoti (2007), "Introduction," "Sahassavagga" and "Bhikkhuvagga."
  14. v. Hinüber, Oskar (2004). "Dhammapada". In Buswell, Jr., Robert E.. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. USA: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 216–17. ISBN 0-02-865910-4.
  15. English chapter titles based on Müller (1881).
  16. Brough (2001) orders the chapters of the Gandhari Dharmapada as follows: I. Brāhmaṇa; II. Bhikṣu; III. Tṛṣṇā; IV. Pāpa; V. Arhant; VI. Mārga; VII. Apramāda; VIII. Citta; IX. Bāla; X. Jarā; XI. Sukha; XII. Sthavira; XIII. Yamaka; XIV. Paṇḍita; XV. Bahuśruta; XVI. Prakīrṇaka (?); XVII. Krodha; XVIII. Pruṣpa; XIX. Sahasra; XX. Śīla (?); XXI. Kṛtya (?); XXII. Nāga, or Aśva (?); XXIII. - XVI. [Lost]. [Parenthesized question marks are part of Brough's titles.] Cone (1989) orders the chapters of the Patna Dharmapada as follows: 1. Jama; 2. Apramāda; 3. Brāhmaṇa; 4. Bhikṣu; 5. Attha; 6. Śoka; 7. Kalyāṇī; 8. Puṣpa; 9. Tahna; 10. Mala; 11. Bāla; 12. Daṇḍa; 13. Śaraṇa; 14. Khānti; 15. Āsava; 16. Vācā; 17. Ātta; 18. Dadantī; 19. Citta; 20. Māgga; 21. Sahasra; [22. Uraga].

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