Genome

Mula sa Wikipediang Tagalog, ang malayang ensiklopedya
Tumalon sa: nabigasyon, hanapin
Isang larawan ng 46 mga kromosoma na bumubuo sa genome na diploid ng lalakeng tao. Ang kromosomang mitokondriyal ay hindi pinakita.

Sa modernong biolohiyang molekular at henetika, ang genome ang kabuuan ng impormasyong pagmamana ng isang organismo. Ito ay kinokodigo sa DNA o para sa maraming mga uri ng virus, sa RNA. Ang genome ay kinabibilangan ng mga gene at hindi nagkokodigong DNA ng DNA/RNA.[1]

Sukat ng genome[baguhin]

Ang sukat ng genome ang kabuuang bilang ng baseng pares na DNA sa isang kopya ng genome na haploid. Ang sukat ng genome ay positibong korelado sa morpolohikong pagiging komplikado sa mga prokaryote at mas mababang mga eukaryote. Gayunpaman, pagkatapos ng mga molluska at lahat ng iba pang mas mataas na mga eukaryote sa itaas, ang korelasyong ito ay hindi na epektibo.[2][3] [4][5]

Uri ng organismo Organismo Sukat ng genome
(base pairs)
Komento
Virus Bacteriophage MS2 3,569 3.5kb Unang nasekwensiyang RNA-genome[6]
Virus SV40 5,224 5.2kb [7]
Virus Phage Φ-X174 5,386 5.4kb Unang nasekwensiyang DNA-genome[8]
Virus HIV 9,749 9.7kb [9]
Virus Phage λ 48,502 48kb
Virus Megavirus 1,259,197 1.3Mb Ang pinakamalaking alam na genome na pang-virus a
Bacterium Haemophilus influenzae 1,830,000 1.8Mb Unang genome ng isang nabubuhay na organismong nasekwensiya, Hulyo 1995[10]
Bacterium Carsonella ruddii 159,662 160kb Ang pinaka-malaiit na hindi-virus na genome.[11]
Bacterium Buchnera aphidicola 600,000 600kb
Bacterium Wigglesworthia glossinidia 700,000 700Kb
Bacterium Escherichia coli 4,600,000 4.6Mb [12]
Bacterium Solibacter usitatus (strain Ellin 6076) 9,970,000 10Mb Ang pinakamalaking alam na genome ng bakterya
Amoeboid Polychaos dubium ("Amoeba" dubia) 670,000,000,000 670Gb Ang pinakamalaking alam na genome.[13] (Disputed [14])
Halaman Arabidopsis thaliana 157,000,000 157Mb Unang genome ng halamang nasekwensiya, 2000[15]
Halaman Genlisea margaretae 63,400,000 63Mb Ang pinakamaliit na itinalang genome ng namumulaklak na halaman, 2006.[15]
Halaman Fritillaria assyrica 130,000,000,000 130Gb
Halaman Populus trichocarpa 480,000,000 480Mb Unang genome ng puno na nasekwensiya, Setyembre 2006
Halaman Paris japonica (Japanese-native, pale-petal) 150,000,000,000 150Gb Largest plant genome known
Moss Physcomitrella patens 480,000,000 480Mb Unang genome ng isang bryophyte na nasekwensiyang, Enero 2008.[16]
Lebadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae 12,100,000 12.1Mb Unang genome ng eukaryoteng nasekwensiyang,[17]
Fungus Aspergillus nidulans 30,000,000 30Mb
Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 100,300,000 100Mb Unang hayop na multiselular na nasekwensiya, Disyembre 1998 [18]
Nematoda Pratylenchus coffeae 20,000,000 20Mb Pinakamaliit na genome ng hayop na alam[19]
Insekto Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) 130,000,000 130Mb [20]
Insekto Bombyx mori (silk moth) 530,000,000 530Mb
Insekto Apis mellifera (honey bee) 236,000,000 236Mb
Insekto Solenopsis invicta (fire ant) 480,000,000 480Mb [21]
Isda Tetraodon nigroviridis (type of puffer fish) 385,000,000 390Mb Pinakamaliit na alam na genome ng bertebrata
Mamalya Mus musculus 2,700,000,000 2.7Gb
Mamalya Homo sapiens 3,200,000,000 3.2Gb
Isda Protopterus aethiopicus (marbled lungfish) 130,000,000,000 130Gb Ang pinakamalaking alam na genome ng bertebrata

Tignan din[baguhin]

Mga sanggunian[baguhin]

  1. Ridley, M. (2006). Genome. New York, NY: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-019497-9
  2. Lewin, Benjamin (2004). Genes VIII (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-143981-2. 
  3. Gregory TR, Nicol JA, Tamm H, Kullman B, Kullman K, Leitch IJ, Murray BG, Kapraun DF, Greilhuber J, Bennett MD (3 January 2007). "Eukaryotic genome size databases". Nucleic Acids Research 35 (Database): D332–D338. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl828. 
  4. Glass JI, Assad-Garcia N, Alperovich N, Yooseph S, Lewis MR, Maruf M, Hutchison CA 3rd, Smith HO, Venter JC (2006). "Essential genes of a minimal bacterium". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (2): 425–30. Bibcode 2006PNAS..103..425G. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510013103. . PMID 16407165. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1324956. 
  5. Forster AC, Church GM (2006). "Towards synthesis of a minimal cell". Mol Syst Biol. 2 (1): 45. doi:10.1038/msb4100090. . PMID 16924266. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1681520. 
  6. Fiers W, et al. (1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature 260 (5551): 500–507. Bibcode 1976Natur.260..500F. doi:10.1038/260500a0. PMID 1264203. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v260/n5551/abs/260500a0.html. 
  7. Fiers W, Contreras R, Haegemann G, Rogiers R, Van de Voorde A, Van Heuverswyn H, Van Herreweghe J, Volckaert G, Ysebaert M (1978). "Complete nucleotide sequence of SV40 DNA". Nature 273 (5658): 113–120. Bibcode 1978Natur.273..113F. doi:10.1038/273113a0. PMID 205802. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v273/n5658/abs/273113a0.html. 
  8. Sanger F, Air GM, Barrell BG, Brown NL, Coulson AR, Fiddes CA, Hutchison CA, Slocombe PM, Smith M (1977). "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA". Nature 265 (5596): 687–695. Bibcode 1977Natur.265..687S. doi:10.1038/265687a0. PMID 870828. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v265/n5596/abs/265687a0.html. 
  9. "Virology - Human Immunodeficiency Virus And Aids, Structure: The Genome And Proteins Of HIV". Pathmicro.med.sc.edu. 2010-07-01. http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/lecture/hiv9.htm. Hinango noong 2011-01-27. 
  10. Fleischmann R, Adams M, White O, Clayton R, Kirkness E, Kerlavage A, Bult C, Tomb J, Dougherty B, Merrick J (1995). "Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd". Science 269 (5223): 496–512. Bibcode 1995Sci...269..496F. doi:10.1126/science.7542800. PMID 7542800. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/269/5223/496. 
  11. Nakabachi A, Yamashita A, Toh H, et al. (October 2006). "The 160-kilobase genome of the bacterial endosymbiont Carsonella". Science 314 (5797): 267. doi:10.1126/science.1134196. PMID 17038615. 
  12. Frederick R. Blattner, Guy Plunkett III, et al. (1997). "The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12". Science 277 (5331): 1453–1462. doi:10.1126/science.277.5331.1453. PMID 9278503. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/277/5331/1453. 
  13. Parfrey LW, Lahr DJG, Katz LA (2008). "The Dynamic Nature of Eukaryotic Genomes". Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 (4): 787–94. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn032. . PMID 18258610. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2933061. 
  14. ScienceShot: Biggest Genome Ever, comments: "The measurement for Amoeba dubia and other protozoa which have been reported to have very large genomes were made in the 1960s using a rough biochemical approach which is now considered to be an unreliable method for accurate genome size determinations."
  15. 15.0 15.1 Greilhuber J, Borsch T, Müller K, Worberg A, Porembski S, and Barthlott W (2006). "Smallest angiosperm genomes found in Lentibulariaceae, with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology 8 (6): 770–777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID 17203433. 
  16. Lang D, Zimmer AD, Rensing SA, Reski R (October 2008). "Exploring plant biodiversity: the Physcomitrella genome and beyond". Trends Plant Sci 13 (10): 542–549. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2008.07.002. PMID 18762443. 
  17. "Saccharomyces Genome Database". Yeastgenome.org. http://www.yeastgenome.org/. Hinango noong 2011-01-27. 
  18. The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology". Science 282 (5396): 2012–2018. doi:10.1126/science.282.5396.2012. PMID 9851916. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/282/5396/2012. 
  19. Gregory TR (2005). "Animal Genome Size Database". http://www.genomesize.com. http://www.genomesize.com/statistics.php?stats=entire#stats_top. 
  20. Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, et al. (2000). "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science 287 (5461): 2185–95. Bibcode 2000Sci...287.2185.. doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2185. PMID 10731132. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/287/5461/2185. Hinango noong 2007-05-25. 
  21. Wurm Y et al. (2011). "The genome of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta". PNAS 108 (14): 5679–5684. Bibcode 2011PNAS..108.5679W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1009690108. . PMID 21282665. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/01/24/1009690108.abstract. Hinango noong 2011-02-01.