Scotland

Mula sa Wikipediang Tagalog, ang malayang ensiklopedya
(Idinirekta mula sa Eskosya)
Tumalon sa: nabigasyon, hanapin
Scotland
Alba
Pambansang Kasabihan: "In My Defens God Me Defend" (Eskoses)
"In my defence God me defend"a
Pambansang Awit: Variousb
Predominantly "Flower of Scotland"
Kinaroroonan ng  Scotland  (madilim na lunti)

– sa lupalop ng Europa  (lunti & madilim na abo)
– sa United Kingdom  (lunti)

Kabisera Edinburgh
55°57′N 3°11′W / May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang < na operator May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang < na operator / May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang * na operator; May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang * na operator
Pinakamalaking lungsod Glasgow
55°51′N 4°16′W / May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang < na operator May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang < na operator / May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang * na operator; May mali sa ekspresyon: Hindi inaasahang * na operator
Mga wika Ingles
Scottish Gaelic
Scotsc
Pangkat etniko (2011)
  • 96.0% Puti
  • 2.7% Timog Asyano
  • 0.7% Itim
  • 0.4% halò
  • 0.2% Arabo
  • 0.1% iba pa[1]
Pangalang-
turing
Nakapangyayaring estado United Kingdom
Pamahalaan Devolved government within constitutional
monarchy
e
 -  Monarko Elizabeth II
 -  Unang Ministro Alex Salmond
British Government
 -  Prime Minister David Cameron
 -  Secretary of State Alistair Carmichael
Lehislatura Scottish Parliament
Formation
 -  Established 9th century (traditionally 843) 
 -  Union with England 1 May 1707 
Lawak
 -  Kabuuan 78,387 km2 
30,414 sq mi 
 -  Katubigan (%) 1.9
Populasyon
 -  Pagtataya ng 2013 5,327,700[2] 
 -  Senso ng 2011 5,313,600[3] 
 -  Kakapalan 67.5/km2 
174.1/sq mi
KGK (nominal) Pagtataya ng 2012
 -  Kabuuan $235 billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $44,378 
Salipi Pound sterling (GBP)
Pook ng oras GMT (UTC​)
 -  Tag-araw (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Anyo ng Petsa dd/mm/yyyy (AD / CE)
Nagmamaneho sa left
Internet TLD .scotf
Kodigong pantawag +44
Patron

Ang Scotland (/ skat·land /; Scottish Gaelic: Alba) ay isang bansa na sumasakop sa hilagang katlo ng pulo ng Gran Britanya at bahagi ng United Kingdom.[9][10][11] Kahangganan nito ang Inglatera sa timog, at pinalilibutan na ng Karagatang Atlantiko – nasa silangan ang North Sea, at timog-kanluran naman ang North Channel at Irish Sea. Bukod pa sa punong-lupain, ang bansa ay may mahigit pang 790 pulo,[12] kasama rito ang Northern Isles at Hebrides.

Edinburgh, ang kabisera at ikalawang pinakamalaking lungsod ng bansa, at pusod ng Scottish Enlightenment noong ika-18 siglo, na nagbigay-raan upang magíng isá sa mga sentrong komersiyal, intelektuwal, at industriyal ang Scotland sa Europa. Glasgow ang pinakamalaking lungsod ng Scotland[13] at isa sa dating nangungunang industriyal na lungsod sa buong mundo at ngayon nasa sentro ng kalakhang Greater Glasgow.

Malaking bahagi ng Hilagang Atlantiko at North Sea ang nasasakupan ng karagatan ng Scotland,[14] kung saan matatagpuan ang pinakamalaking reserba sa langis sa European Union. Bunsod nito, tinagurian ang Aberdeen—ang ikatlong pinakamalaking lungsod ng Scotland—na kabisera ng langis ng Europa.[15]

Ang Kaharian ng Scotland ay naging isang malayang estado noong Simula ng Gitnang Panahon at nagpatuloy hanggang 1707. Ito'y pumasok sa isang unyong personal kasama ang mga kaharian ng Inglaterra at Ireland, kasunod ng pagmana ni James VI ng trono ng Inglaterra at Ireland noong 1603, kalaunan pumasok sa unyong politikal ang Scotland sa Ingletarra noong 1 Mayo 1707 upang lumikha ng isang Kaharian ng Gran Britanya.[16][17] Ang unyong ito ay bunsod ng Treaty of Union na pinagkasunduan noong 1706 at pinagtibay ng kambal na Acts of Union na ipinasa ng mga Parlamento ng dalawang bansa, sa kabila ng malawakang oposisyon dito at kaguluhan na kontra-unyon sa Edinburgh, Glasgow at kung saan-saan pa.[18][19] Ang Gran Britanya naman ay pumasok sa unyong politikal kasama ang Ireland noong 1 Enero 1801 upang likhain ang United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Nananatiling hiwalay sa Inglaterra at Wales at Northern Ireland ang sistemang legal ng Scotland, at ang Scotland din ay may natatanging hurisdiksiyon sa pampubliko at pampribadong batas.[20] Ang patuloy na pagpapanatili ng mga institusyong legal, edukasyonal, at relihiyoso, na hiwalay sa ibang bahagi ng UK, ay nakatulong sa pagpapatuloy ng kultura at pambansang pagkakakilanlan ng mga Scottish, mula noong pagsasanib ng 1707.[21] Noong 1999, matapos ang referendum noong 1997, ibinalik at nagpulong-muli ang Parlamento ng Scotland, na may malawak na kapangyarihan sa pagpapasiya ng mga domestikong paksa at usapin. Noong Mayo 2011, nanalo ng pangkalahatang mayorya ang Scottish National Party sa Parlamento ng Scotland. Dulot nito, isang referendum tungkol sa kasarinlan ng Scotland ang gaganapin sa 18 Setyembre 2014.[22][23]

Ang Scotland ay kasaping bansa ng British–Irish Council,[24] at ng British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Kinakatawan ang Scotland ng anim na MEP sa European Union at sa European Parliament.[25]


Mga sanggunian[baguhin]

  1. "Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011". The Scottish Government. 2013. http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2asbtable2.pdf. Hinango noong 9 December 2013. 
  2. "Scotland's Population at its Highest Ever". National Records of Scotland. 30 April 2014. http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/news/2014/scotlands-population-at-its-highest-ever. Hinango noong 30 April 2014. 
  3. "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012". National Records of Scotland. 8 August 2013. http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/theme/population/estimates/mid-year/2012/index.html. Hinango noong 8 August 2013. 
  4. Scottish Government. "Key Economy Statistics". http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Economy. Hinango noong 17 June 2013. 
  5. "St Andrew—Quick Facts". Scotland. org—The Official Online Gateway. http://www.scotland.org/about/history-tradition-and-roots/features/culture/st-andrews.html. Hinango noong 2 December 2007. [patay na kawing]
  6. "St Andrew". Catholic Online. http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=109. Hinango noong 15 November 2011. 
  7. "St Margaret of Scotland". Catholic Online. http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=304. Hinango noong 15 November 2011. 
    "Patron saints". Catholic Online. http://www.catholic.org/saints/patron.php?letter=S. Hinango noong 15 November 2011. 
  8. "St Columba". Catholic Online. http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=419. Hinango noong 15 November 2011. 
  9. "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/beginner-s-guide/administrative/the-countries-of-the-uk/index.html. Hinango noong 24 June 2012. 
  10. "Countries within a country". 10 Downing Street. Archived from the original noong 16 April 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100416083521/http://www.number10.gov.uk/Page823. Hinango noong 24 August 2008. "The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland" 
  11. "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)" (PDF). International Organization for Standardization codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision codes. http://www.iso.org/iso/newsletter_i-9.pdf. Hinango noong 31 May 2008. "SCT Scotland country" 
  12. "Scottish Executive Resources" (PDF). Scotland in Short. Scottish Executive. 17 February 2007. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/923/0010669.pdf. Hinango noong 14 September 2006. 
  13. "A quick guide to glasgow". Glasgow City Centre. http://glasgowcitycentre.co.uk/places-to-go/shops/a-quick-guide-to-glasgow/. Hinango noong 20 June 2012. 
  14. The Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order. London: The Stationery Office Limited. 1999. ISBN 0-11-059052-X. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/19991126.htm. Hinango noong 20 September 2007. 
  15. "Our City". Aberdeen City Council. Archived from the original noong 22 September 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100922092924/http://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/EqualityDiversity/eqd_OurCity.asp. Hinango noong 1 December 2009. "Aberdeen's buoyant modern economy – is fuelled by the oil industry, earning the city its epithet as 'Oil Capital of Europe'" 
  16. Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Pages 734 and 930.
  17. Mackie, J.D. (1969) A History of Scotland. London. Penguin.
  18. Devine, T. M. (1999). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000. Penguin Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-14-023004-1. "From that point on anti-union demonstrations were common in the capital. In November rioting spread to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism and covenanting tradition. The Glasgow mob rose against union sympathisers in disturbances that lasted intermittently for over a month" 
  19. "Act of Union 1707 Mob unrest and disorder". London: The House of Lords. 2007. Archived from the original noong 1 January 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080101193416/http://www.parliament.uk/actofunion/06_03_mob.html. Hinango noong 23 December 2007. 
  20. Collier, J. G. (2001) Conflict of Laws (Third edition)(pdf) Cambridge University Press. "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England and Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia ... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom – Scotland and Northern Ireland – are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey."
  21. Devine, T. M. (1999), The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, P.288–289, ISBN 0-14-023004-1 "created a new and powerful local state run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland"
  22. "Scotland: Independence Referendum Date Set". BSkyB. 21 March 2013. http://news.sky.com/story/1067962/scotland-names-the-day-for-independence-vote. Hinango noong 4 May 2013. 
  23. Gardham, Magnus (2 May 2011). "Holyrood election 2011: Alex Salmond: Referendum on Scottish independence by 2015". Daily Record (Scotland). http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/politics-news/2011/05/02/alex-salmond-referendum-on-scottish-independence-by-2015-86908-23102061/. Hinango noong 14 October 2011. 
  24. "Scotland / Alba". British-Irish Council. http://www.britishirishcouncil.org/member-administrations/scotland-alba. Hinango noong 4 May 2013. 
  25. "Scottish MEPs". Europarl.org.uk. http://www.europarl.org.uk/en/office_edinburgh/scottish_meps.html. Hinango noong 26 May 2014. [patay na kawing]