Oo

Mula sa Wikipediang Tagalog, ang malayang ensiklopedya
(Idinirekta mula sa 'po)
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Tumuturo papunta rito ang "po". Para sa "Po" na sagisag ng elementong Polonyo, pumunta sa Polonyo (elemento).
Para sa ibang gamit, tingnan ang Kayo (paglilinaw).

Ang oo (Ingles: yes) ay isang salitang pang-abay na gumaganap o ginagamit bilang mga pamantayang sagot o tugon ng pagsang-ayon. Katumbas din ito ng opo at oho.[1][2] Nangangahulugan din ito ng talaga, siya nga, at siyanga.[3][4][2] Sa katunayan, pinagsamang oo at po ang opo, na nagmula sa pariralang "Oo po". Ginagamit ang opo upang magbigay ng galang sa mga nakatatanda, mga nakataas o may katungkulang mga tao, at maging para sa mga hindi kilalang tao. Higit na mas pormal at mas magalang ang opo kung ihahambing sa oho.[2] Pinagsamang oo at ho ang oho. Nagpapahiwatig ang oho ng pagiging kakilala na o malapit na ng nagsasalita sa isang taong kausap. Kapag isinalin sa Ingles, katumbas ng opo (pormal) at oho (hindi gaanong pormal) ang mga pariralang "Yes, sir" (kapag lalaki ang kausap) at "Yes, madam" (kung babae ang kausap), sapagkat ang po at ho ay katumbas ng madam (ginang) o sir (ginoo) ng Ingles. Sa salitang oo nagmula ang magpaoo at paoohan na may ibig sabihing sumang-ayon sa isang bagay o magbigay ng pahintulot. Samantalang nangangahulugan ang mamupo o pupuin bilang pagpapakita o magpakita ng paggalang habang nakikipag-usap sa o kapag sumasagot o tumugon sa mga matatanda o taong may katungkulan at pagpapakita ng pagkakaiba ng antas sa lipunan, sa pamamamagitan ng paggamit o pagdaragdag ng salitang po.[1][2] Sa ilang pagkakataon, kaugnay din ito ng panghalip na kayo (o kayó),[2] na katumbas ng you sa Ingles at pangmaramihan ng salitang ikaw (you rin ang katumbas sa Ingles), at ginagamit sa pakikipag-usap sa iisang tao habang nagpapakita ng paggalang.[1] Halimbawa ng paggamit ang pariralang "oposumasangayonpoako

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Oo, opo, oho, kayó". English, Leo James. Tagalog-English Dictionary (Talahulugang Tagalog-Ingles). 1990., pahina 324, 948, 949, 1059, 1060.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Blake, Matthew (2008). "Yes, yea, ay(e), oo, oho, opo, kayó". Tagalog English Dictionary-English Tagalog Dictionary. Bansa.org.
  3. Gaboy, Luciano L. Yes, oo, opo, oho, talaga, siya nga - Gabby's Dictionary: Praktikal na Talahuluganang Ingles-Filipino ni Gabby/Gabby's Practical English-Filipino Dictionary, GabbyDictionary.com.
  4. De Guzman, Maria Odulio (1968). "Yes, oo, oho, opo". The New Filipino-English / English-Filipino Dictionary. National Bookstore (Lungsod ng Mandaluyong) ISBN 9710817760., pahina 195.

Philippine History: The Japanese Occupation in the Philippines o The Philippine Archipelago Doctrine o Achievements and Accomplishments of President Elpidio Quirino o The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 and GomBurZa Execution o Spaniards’ Attempts to Colonize Mindanao In 1570 the encomienda was introduced in the Philippines when Legaspi, in compliance with the decree issued by King Philip II in 1558, distributed lands in Cebu to loyal Spanish subjects. These men had helped conquer the Philippines. The encomienda was not actually a land grant but was a favor from the kind under which the Spaniard receiving his favor was given the right to collect tributes–or taxes–from the inhabitants of the area assigned to him. The man who received this favor was called anencomendero. The encomienda was, therefore, a public office. The encomenderos were required by law to perform the following duties:

  1. 1. to give protection to the natives
  2. 2. to help the missionaries convert the natives to Christianity
  3. 3. to promote education

Unfortunately, many Spanish encomenderos committed abuses, such as: 1. Brutal treatment of the Filipinos 2. Collecting more tribute than that authorized by law 3. Forcing the people to work for them 4. Seizure of the people’s animals and crops without just compensation Because of the abuses of encomenderos, much bad feeling resulted. First, peace and order, which the colonizers and the early Spanish friars had established, was disturbed. Second, the abuses led to a conflict between the friars and the encomenderos. The early friars observed that the encomenderos neglected their duty of teaching the Christian faith to the Filipinos. They saw that the encomenderos were only interested in enriching themselves instead. The friars tried to protect the Filipinos from the greed and abuses of the encomenderos by;

  1. 1. preaching from the pulpits against encomendero abuses
  2. 2. writing letters and memorials to the King of Spain in which they reported the abuses of the encomenderos
  3. 3. refusing to absolve the encomenderos from their sins.

The Filipinos, seeing that the encomenderos were interested only in getting rich, grew lazy. They reasoned that it was useless to work too hard for a living if the fruits of their work would only go to the payment of excessive tributes to the encomenderos. This attitude was encouraged by the friars who told them that the abandonment of their labors would free from injustice. There were three kinds of encomiendas:

  1. 1. the Royal Encomiendas, belonging to the King
  2. 2. the Ecclesiastical Encomiendas, belonging to the Church
  3. 3. Private Encomiendas, belonging to private individuals

At first the natives paid eight reales as tribute. This amount was increased to ten reales in 1589 by order of King Philip II. Aside from the tribute expected from the royal encomiendas, the king also received reales from each tribute each encomiendero received from his encomienda. The total amount of the tributes intended for the king was kept as fund to pay the expenses for the country’s defense. This fund was called the situado. The size of an encomienda was determined in two ways:

  1. 1. by the number of people living in it
  2. 2. by the value of the land

The law limited the number of natives in an area and administered by an encomendero to not more than 300, and the value of the land was limited to not more than P2,000. At first an encomienda could be held for three generations (about ninety years). This was later reduced to two generation. But because of the complaints from encomenderos, the king decided to return the encomienda tenure to three generations in 1635.

The word encomienda comes from the Spanish word encomendar which means "to entrust". In order to get enough money to pay for the administration of the country and the construction of churches, government buildings, roads and bridges, and improvements in transportation and communication, the Filipinos were compelled to pay tribute called tributo, to the colonial government. The tributo was imposed as a sign of the Filipinos’ loyalty to the king of Spain. Those who paid tribute were individuals above sixteen years old and below sixty. At the start, a tribute amounting to eight reales was collected. The tribute increased in 1598 and a small part of it, called sanctorum, went to the church. Because of the widespread opposition to the tribute and to the abuses in its collection, the king abolished it in 1884. The cedula personal, the equivalent of which is the present residence certificate, was introduced in its place. Aside from the tribute, the Filipinos also paid other taxes. There were the diezmos prediales, the donativo de Zamboanga, and the vinta. The diezmos prediales was a tax consisting of one-tenth of the produce of one’s land. The donativo de Zamboanga, introduced in 1635, was taxed specifically used for the conquest of Jolo. The vinta was tax paid by people in the provinces along the coast of Western Luzon to defend the area against Muslim pirates common at the time, as can still be seen from the surviving towers of stone (where bells were rung to warn the locality when Muslim pirates arrived). The provinces of the Philippines in the Spanish times were of two kinds–the civil provinces and the military provinces. The civil provinces were in the pacified regionds and were called alcadiasheaded by the alcalde mayor. The military provinces were the unpacified provinces calledcorregimentos and were headed by army officers knows as corregidores. The alcalde-mayor was appointed by the governor-general. He exercised both executive and judicial powers, including the power to collect taxes. His salary was modest, but he had the privilege of engaging in trade to increase his income. This privilege was called indulto de comercio. It made him rich and powerful. In almost all cases, the alcalde-mayor abused his indulto comercio and committed graft. Abuses on the use of indulto led to its abolition in 1844. Another anomalous practice was the alcalde mayor’s being not only the chief executive of his province but its chief judge as well. To prevent further abuses by the alcaldes-mayor, the king issued an order in 1886 limiting their power to those of a judge. A civil governor was then appointed to administer the affairs of the province.