Digmaang Tsino-Pranses

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Digmaang Tsino-Pranses
中法战争/中法戰争
Guerre franco-chinoise
Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh
Bahagi ng the Kampanya sa Tonkin
SinoFrenchWar1884-1885.jpg
Mga operasyong naganap noong digmaang Tsino–Pranses (1884–85)
Petsa Agosto 1884 – Abril 1885
Lokasyon Timog-silangang Tsina, Taiwan, Hilagang Vietnam
Resulta Nagdeklara ng pagkapanalo ang Qing at Pransiya
Pagbabago sa
teritoryo
Protektoradong Pranses sa Tonkin at Annam.
Mga Nakikidigma
Pransiya Pransiya Dinastiyang Qing Imperyong Qing
Black Flag Army
22x20px Vietnam
Pinuno
Pransiya Amédée Courbet
Pransiya Sébastien Lespès
Pransiya Louis Brière de l'Isle
Pransiya François de Négrier
Pransiya Laurent Giovanninelli
Pransiya Jacques Duchesne
Dinastiyang QingPrince Gong
Dinastiyang QingZuo Zongtang
Dinastiyang Qing Zhang Peilun
Dinastiyang Qing Pan Dingxin
Dinastiyang Qing Wang Debang
Dinastiyang Qing Feng Zicai
Dinastiyang Qing Tang Ching-sung
Dinastiyang Qing Liu Mingchuan
Dinastiyang Qing Sun Kaihua
Black Flag Army Flag.svg Liu Yongfu
Hoàng Kế Viêm
Lakas
15,000 – 20,000 kawal 25,000 – 35,000 kawal (mula sa Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang at Yunnan)
Nawala
2,100 napatay o nasugatan 10,000 napatay o nasugatan

Ang Digmaang Tsino-Pranses (Tsinong pinapayak: 中法战争; Tsinong tradisyonal: 中法戰争; pinyin: Zhōngfǎ Zhànzhēng, Pranses: Guerre franco-chinoise, Biyetnames: Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), kilala rin bilang Digmaang Tonkin o Digmaang Tonquin[2] ay isang alitang nagpasiya kung papalitan ba ng Pransiya ang Tsina bilang kapangyarihang mananaig sa Tonkin (hilagang Vietnam). Bagaman higit na naging mahusay ang hukbong Tsino sa naturang digmaan kaysa sa mga digmaang kinasangkutan nito noong ika-19 na siglo,[3] nakamit naman ng mga Pranses ang karamihan sa kanilang layunin.[4]

Talasanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. Bruce A. Elleman (2001). Modern Chinese warfare, 1795-1989 (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-415-21474-2. Retrieved 2012-01-18. "who had been in Tonkin for only three months, took command. He immediately ordered the evacuation of Lang Són. Although Herbinger may have been retiring to the more strongly fortified positions further south, the retreat seemed to many to be the result of panic. Widely interpreted as a Chinese victory, the Qing forces were able to capture the strategic northern city of Lang Són and the surrounding territory by early April 1885. China's forces now dominated the battefield, but fighting ended on 4 April 1885 as a result of peace negotiations. China sued for peace because Britain and Germany had not offered assistance as Beijing had hoped, and Russia and Japan threatened china's northern borders. Meanwhile, China's economy was injured by the French "naval interdiction of the seaborne rich trade."197 Negotiations between Li Hongzhang and the French minister in China were concluded in June 1885. Although Li did not have to admit fault for starting the war, Beijing did recognize all of the French treaties with Annam that turned it into a French protectorate."
  2. See, for example, Anonymous, "Named To Be Rear Admiral: Eventful and Varied Career of 'Sailor Joe' Skerrett," The New York Times, April 19, 1894.
  3. Bruce A. Elleman (2001). Modern Chinese warfare, 1795-1989 (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-415-21474-2. Retrieved 2012-01-18. "who had been in Tonkin for only three months, took command. He immediately ordered the evacuation of Lang Són. Although Herbinger may have been retiring to the more strongly fortified positions further south, the retreat seemed to many to be the result of panic. Widely interpreted as a Chinese victory, the Qing forces were able to capture the strategic northern city of Lang Són and the surrounding territory by early April 1885. China's forces now dominated the battefield, but fighting ended on 4 April 1885 as a result of peace negotiations. China sued for peace because Britain and Germany had not offered assistance as Beijing had hoped, and Russia and Japan threatened china's northern borders. Meanwhile, China's economy was injured by the French "naval interdiction of the seaborne rich trade."197 Negotiations between Li Hongzhang and the French minister in China were concluded in June 1885. Although Li did not have to admit fault for starting the war, Beijing did recognize all of the French treaties with Annam that turned it into a French protectorate."
  4. Twitchett, Cambridge History of China, xi. 251; Chere, 188–90; Eastman, 200–205