Digmaang Apgano–Sobyetiko

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Digmaang Apgano–Sobyetiko
Bahagi ng the Cold War and the Afghan conflict


Petsa24 December 1979 – 15 February 1989
(9 taon, 1 buwan, 3 linggo at 1 araw)
Lookasyon
Apganistan
Resulta Afghan Mujahideen victory
Mga nakipagdigma
Unyong Sobyet Unyong Sobyetiko
Padron:Country data Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Afghan Mujahideen
Afghan Interim Government (from 1988)
Mga kumander at pinuno

Shia Mujahideen:
Mga sangkot na yunit
Padron:Flagd Soviet Armed Forces
Padron:Flagd KGB
Sunni MujahideenShia Mujahideen
Lakas
Soviet Union:
  • 620,000 total personnel[7] 115,000 (1986 estimate)[8] 120,000 (1987 estimate)[9]
Afghanistan:
  • 250,000 total personnel (1989, including Sarandoy and Khad)[10]
Mujahideen:
Mga nasawi at pinsala
Total: 86,470–98,017
Soviet Union:
  • 14,453[14]–26,000 killed
    • 9,500 killed in combat[14]
    • 4,000 died from wounds[14]
    • 1,000 died from disease and accidents[14]
  • 53,753 wounded[14]
  • 264 missing
  • 451 aircraft lost (including 333 helicopters)
  • 147 tanks lost
  • 1,314 IFVs/APCs lost
  • 433 artillery guns and mortars lost
  • 11,369 cargo and fuel tanker trucks lost
Afghanistan:
Total: 162,579–192,579+
Mujahideen:
  • 150,000–180,000 casualties (tentative estimate)[21]
    • 75,000–90,000 killed
Pakistan:

Total killed: 80,775–95,775+
Civilian casualties (Afghan):
1,500,000–2,000,000 killed[24][25]
3+ million wounded[26]
5+ million externally displaced
2+ million internally displaced
Combatant deaths:
More than 562,995 killed[27]
Total deaths:
Approximately 3 million killed

Ang Digmaang Apgano–Sobyetiko ay isang sampung taong hidwaan na kinasasangkutan ng Unyong Sobyetiko, na sumusuporta sa pamahalaang Marxista ng Demokratikong Republika ng Apganistan dahil sa kanilang sariling kahilingan laban sa Islamistang Resistensiya ng Mujahideen. Isa itong digmaang sa pagitan ng mga puwersa ng Unyong Sobyet at ng Islamikong mga tribo ng Apganistan na laban sa pamahalaang Komunistang itinakda ng mga Sobyet. Nakatagpo ng ibang tumatangkilik ang mga mujahideen mula sa samu't saring mga bansa katulad ng Estados Unidos, Nagkakaisang Kaharian, Arabyang Saudi, Pakistan, Ehipto, at iba pang mga nasyong Muslim sa pamamagitan ng konteksto ng Digmaang Malamig. Ang mga puwersang Apgano na antikomunista (laban sa Komunista) ay pangunahing nakakuha ng suporta mula sa Estados Unidos at Pakistan.

Ang unang pagpapadala ng mga sundalong Sobyet (ika-40 Hukbong-Katihan) sa Apganistan ay nagsimula noong 24 Disyembre 1979 sa ilalim ng pinunong Sobyet na si Leonid Brezhnev. Ang panghuling pagtatanggal ng mga tropa ng sundalong Sobyet ay nagsimula noong 15 Mayo 1988, at nagwakas noong 15 Pebrero 1989 sa ilalim ng huling pinunong Sobyet na si Mikhail Gorbachev. Dahil sa napakatagal na kalikasan ng digmaan, ang hidwaan sa Apgranistan ay kadalasang tinutukoy bilang Biyetnam ng mga Sobyet ;[28] ang analohiya ay naghahambing sa gampanin ng Amerika sa Digmaan ng Biyetnam. Maraming mga tao ang napatay o nasugatan sa matagal na digmaang ito. Nasa bandang mga sundalong Sobyet ang namatay, at nasa bandang 35,000 ang sugatan. Nasa bandang 1 milyong mga Apgano ang napaslang.

Sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang wikitext]

  1. "The top leader is believed to be Maulvi Mohammad Umar Amir, who was born in the village of Nodeh in Kandhar, and is now settled in Singesar. He was wounded four times in the battles against the Soviets and his right eye was permanently damaged. He took part in the "Jehad" under the late Hizb-e-Islami Khalis Commander Nek Mohammad". Indian Defence Review. 10: 33. 1995.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Goodson 2011, p. 190.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Goodson 2011, p. 61.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Goodson 2011, p. 189.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Goodson 2011, p. 62.
  6. Goodson 2011, p. 63.
  7. Krivosheev, p. 365
  8. Nyrop, Richard F.; Seekins, Donald M. (Enero 1986). Afghanistan: A Country Study (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. pp. xviii–xxv. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal (PDF) noong 3 Nobyembre 2001.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  9. Borshchevskaya, Anna (2022). "2: The Soviet Union in the Middle East and the Afghanistan Intervention". Putin's War in Syria. 50 Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3DP, UK: I. B. Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7556-3463-7. By 1987, the number of Soviet troops reached 120,000.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: location (link)
  10. Katz, Mark N. (9 Marso 2011). "Middle East Policy Council | Lessons of the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan". Mepc.org. Nakuha noong 28 Hulyo 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  11. Rischard, Maxime. "Al Qa'ida's American Connection". Global-Politics.co.uk. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 21 Nobyembre 2011. Nakuha noong 28 Hulyo 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  12. "Soviet or the USA the strongest" (sa wikang Noruwego). Translate.google.no. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 17 Marso 2019. Nakuha noong 28 Hulyo 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  13. "Afghanistan hits Soviet milestone – Army News". Armytimes.com. Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 25 Mayo 2012. Nakuha noong 15 Pebrero 2012. {{cite web}}: |archive-date= / |archive-url= timestamp mismatch (tulong)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang vfw.org); $2
  15. "Reid, Ogden, (16 May 1882–4 Jan. 1947), Owner and Editor of the New York Herald Tribune", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 2007-12-01, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u230900, nakuha noong 2024-03-02{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  16. SIPRI Yearbook 1989 World Armaments and Disarmament. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 1989. p. 166.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  17. "Reid, Ogden, (16 May 1882–4 Jan. 1947), Owner and Editor of the New York Herald Tribune", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 2007-12-01, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u230900, nakuha noong 2024-03-02{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  18. SIPRI Yearbook 1989 World Armaments and Disarmament. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 1989. p. 166.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  19. "Reid, Ogden, (16 May 1882–4 Jan. 1947), Owner and Editor of the New York Herald Tribune", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 2007-12-01, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u230900, nakuha noong 2024-03-02{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  20. SIPRI Yearbook 1989 World Armaments and Disarmament. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 1989. p. 166.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  21. Giustozzi, Antonio (2000). War, politics and society in Afghanistan, 1978–1992. Hurst. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-85065-396-7. A tentative estimate for total mujahideen losses in 1980–92 may be in the 150–180,000 range, with maybe half of them killed.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  22. Markovskiy, Victor (1997). "Жаркое небо Афганистана: Часть IX" [Hot Sky of Afghanistan: Part IX]. Авиация и время [Aviation and Time] (in Russian) p.28
  23. Weisman, Steven R. (2 Mayo 1987). "AFGHANS DOWN A PAKISTANI F-16, SAYING FIGHTER JET CROSSED BORDER". The New York Times. Nakuha noong 2 Oktubre 2014.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  24. Klass 2018, p. 129.
  25. Goodson 2011, p. 5.
  26. Hilali, A. (2005). US–Pakistan relationship: Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co. (p. 198)ISBN 0-7546-4220-8
  27. Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang 562k); $2
  28. "Archive copy". Inarkibo mula sa ang orihinal noong 2013-05-11. Nakuha noong 2010-06-21.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)