Ku Klux Klan
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Sagisag ng Ku Klux Klan
|Unang Klan||Hindi alam|
|Pangalawang Klan||3,000,000–6,000,000 (umabot sa tugatog 1924–25)|
Ang Ku Klux Klan (binibigkas na /,_/),[a] na kadalasang tinatawag na KKK o payak na Klan, ay ang pangalan ng tatlong mga di-magkauring kilusan sa Estados Unidos na nagtaguyod ng mga marahas at reactionary na mga paninindigan tulad ng white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration at (lalo na sa mga sumunod na ulit) Nordisismo, anti-Catholicism at antisemitismo. Sa nakaraan, gumamit ng Ku Klux Klan ng terorismo—kapuwa pisikal na pananakit at pagpatay—laban sa mga pangkat o tao na kanilang tinututulan. Tumatawag ang lahat ng tatlong mga kilusan para "paglilinis" ng lipunang Amerikano at lahat ay itinuturing mga labis na samahang makakanan.
The first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Era, especially by using violence against African American leaders. With numerous chapters across the South, it was suppressed around 1871, through federal law enforcement. Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: robes, masks and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities.
The second group was founded in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, particularly in urban areas of the Midwest and West. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it opposed Catholics and Jews, while also stressing its opposition to the Catholic Church at a time of high immigration from mostly Catholic nations of southern and eastern Europe. This second organization adopted a standard white costume and used code words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others.
The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after WWII, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name. They have focused on opposition to the Civil Rights Movement, often using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center. Magmula noong 2016[update], the Anti-Defamation League puts total Klan membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) puts it at 6,000 members total.
The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism. Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denomination has officially denounced the KKK.
Mga nota[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
- McVeigh, Rory. "Structural Incentives for Conservative Mobilization: Power Devaluation and the Rise of the Ku Klux Klan, 1915–1925". Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 4 (June 1999), p. 1463.
- "Ku Klux Klan". Southern Poverty Law Center. Nakuha noong 7 Pebrero 2013.
- Maling banggit (Hindi tamang
<ref>tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. mga pa. 21, 30, 55.
- Michael, Robert, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present. Lanham, Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press, 1997, p. 267.
- Kelly Baker, Gospel According to the Klan: The KKK's Appeal to Protestant America, 1915–1930 (U Press of Kadas, 2011)
- Petersen, William. Against the Stream: Reflections of an Unconventional Demographer. Transaction Publishers. pa. 89. ISBN 9781412816663. Nakuha noong May 8, 2016.
- Pratt Guterl, Matthew (2009). The Color of Race in America, 1900-1940. Harvard University Press. pa. 42. ISBN 9780674038059.
- Pitsula, James M. (2013). Keeping Canada British: The Ku Klux Klan in 1920s Saskatchewan. UBC Press. ISBN 9780774824927.
- Brooks, Michael E. (2014). The Ku Klux Klan in Wood County, Ohio. The History Press. ISBN 9781626193345.
- O'Donnell, Patrick (Editor), 2006. Ku Klux Klan America's First Terrorists Exposed, p. 210. ISBN 1-4196-4978-7.
- Rory McVeigh, The Rise of the Ku Klux Klan: Right-Wing Movements and National Politics (2009).
- Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America (2000), ch. 3, 5, 13.
- Chalmers, David Mark, 2003. Backfire: How the Ku Klux Klan Helped the Civil Rights Movement, p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7425-2311-1.
- Charles Quarles, 1999. The Ku Klux Klan and Related American Racialist and Antisemitic Organizations: A History and Analysis, p. 100. McFarland.
- See, e.g., Klanwatch Project (2011), illustrations, pp. 9–10.
- Elaine Frantz Parsons, "Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan". Journal of American History 92.3 (2005): 811–36.
- Both the Anti-Defamation League Naka-arkibo October 3, 2012, sa Wayback Machine. and the Southern Poverty Law Center include it in their lists of hate groups. See also Brian Levin, "Cyberhate: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Extremists' Use of Computer Networks in America", in Perry, Barbara (ed.), Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader, Routledge, 2003, p. 112.
- "At 150, KKK sees opportunities in US political trends" (sa wikang Ingles). Nakuha noong July 2, 2016.
- Newton, Michael (2001). The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida.
- Perlmutter, Philip (January 1, 1999). Legacy of Hate: A Short History of Ethnic, Religious, and Racial Prejudice in America. M.E. Sharpe. pa. 170. ISBN 978-0-7656-0406-4.
Kenneth T. Jackson, in his The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930, reminds us that "virtually every" Protestant denomination denounced the KKK, but that most KKK members were not "innately depraved or anxious to subvert American institutions," but rather believed their membership in keeping with "one-hundred percent Americanism" and Christianity morality.