Varanasi

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Varanasi

Benares
Banaras
Kashi
Manikarnika Cremation Ghat, Varanasi.jpg
Ustad Nazim Hussain accompanying his father Shehnai Maestro Bharat Ratna Ustad Bismillah Khan.jpg
Faculty of Arts Building, Banaras Hindu University.jpg
Weaving silk brocade (Varanasi).jpg
Goswami Tulsidas Awadhi Hindi Poet.jpg
Sampurnanand Sanskrit University left gate.jpg
Munshi Ghat in Varanasi 2.jpg
Kaliwa pakanan, Taas pababa: Manikarnika Ghat, ang banal na pook pag-aabo sa tabing-ilog ng Ganges; Shehnai maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan; Facultdad ng Sining, Pamantasang Hindu ng Benares; Paghahabi ng kultang brokado; Goswami Tulsidas, kompositor ng Ramcharitmanas; Kolehiyong Sanskrito ng Benares, pinakalumang Sanskritong kolehiyo ng India, itinatag noong Pamumuno ng Kompanya sa India noong 1791; at Munshi Ghat
Kamalian ng lua na sa Module:Location_map na nasa linyang 510: Unable to find the specified location map definition: "Module:Location map/data/India Uttar Pradesh Varanasi" does not exist
Mga koordinado: 25°19′08″N 83°00′46″E / 25.31889°N 83.01278°E / 25.31889; 83.01278Mga koordinado: 25°19′08″N 83°00′46″E / 25.31889°N 83.01278°E / 25.31889; 83.01278
Bansa India
[Mga estado ng India|Estado]]Uttar Pradesh
DibisyonVaranasi
DistritoVaranasi
Pamahalaan
 • UriMunisipal na Korporasyon
 • KonsehoVaranasi Municipal Corporation
 • MayorMridula Jaiswal (BJP)
 • Divisional CommissionerDeepak Agarwal, IAS
 • District MagistrateKaushal Raj Sharma, IAS
 • Inspector General, Varanasi RangeSuvendra Kr. Bhagat, IPS
 • Commissioner of PoliceA. Satish Ganesh, IPS
Lawak
 • Metropolis82 km2 (32 milya kuwadrado)
 • Metro163.8 km2 (63.2 milya kuwadrado)
Taas
80.71 m (264.80 tal)
Populasyon
 (2011)
 • Metropolis1,212,610[1]
 • Ranggo31st
 • Metro1,432,280 (32nd)
DemonymBanarasi
Language
 • OfficialHindi[5]
 • Additional officialUrdu[5]
 • RegionalBhojpuri
Sona ng orasUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
221 001 to** (** area code)
Telephone code0542
Plaka ng sasakyanUP 65
GDP$3.8 billion (2019–20)[6]
Per capita incomeINR 1,93 616[7]
Sex ratio0.926 (2011) /
Literacy (2011)80.31%[8]
HDI0.645[9]
Websaytvaranasi.nic.in

Ang Varanasi (Vārāṇasī ;[ʋaːˈraːɳəsi]) ay isang lungsod sa ilog Ganges sa hilagang India na may sentral na lugar sa peregrinasyon, kamatayan, at pagluluksa sa mundo ng Hinduismo.[10] Ang pangalang Varanasi ay opisyal na muling binuhay pagkatapos ng 1947,[11] ngunit ang lungsod ay kilala pa rin bilang Banaras o Benares ( Banāras ;[bəˈnaːrəs] ( pakinggan)),[12][13] at mula noong sinaunang panahon din bilang Kashi,[14][15] Ang lungsod ay may sinkretikong tradisyon ng pagiging artesanong Muslim na nagpapatibay sa turismo nito.[16][17] Matatagpuan sa gitnang Lambak Ganges sa timog-silangang bahagi ng estado ng Uttar Pradesh, ang Varanasi ay nasa kaliwang pampang ng ilog. Ito ay 692 kilometro (430 mi) sa timog-silangan ng kabesera ng India na New Delhi, 320 kilometro (200 mi) timog-silangan ng kabesera ng estado, Lucknow, at 121 kilometro (75 mi) silangan ng Allahabad, isa pang lugar ng peregrinasyon sa Hinduismo.

Ang Varanasi ay isa sa pinakamatandang lungsod na patuloy na pinaninirahan sa mundo.[18] Ang Kashi, ang sinaunang pangalan nito, ay nauugnay sa isang kaharian na may parehong pangalan noong 2,500 taon na ang nakalilipas. Ang Buddha ay naitala sa Kanon ng Pali na nagbigay ng kaniyang unang sermon, "Ang Paghuhudyat ng Pag-ikoy ng Gulong ng Dharma", sa kalapit na Sarnath noong 528 BCE. Noong ika-8 siglo, itinatag ni Adi Shankara ang pagsamba sa Shiva bilang isang opisyal na sekta ng Varanasi. Sa panahon ng pamumuno ng mga Muslim noong Gitnang Kapanahunan, ang lungsod ay naging isang mahalagang sentro ng debosyon ng Hindu, peregrinasyon, mistisismo, at panulaan na nag-aambag sa kahalagahan ng kultura nito. Isinulat ni Tulsidas ang kaniyang epiko sa wikang Awadhi, ang Ramcharitmanas, isang kilusang Bhakti na muling paggawa ng Sanskritong Ramayana, sa Varanasi. Ilang iba pang pangunahing tauhan ng kilusang Bhakti ay isinilang sa Varanasi, kasama sina Kabir at Ravidas.[19] Noong ika-16 na siglo, ang emperador ng Mughal na si Akbar ay nagtayo ng dalawang malalaking templong inalay kanila Shiva at Vishnu sa lungsod. Sa ilalim ng Kasunduan ng Faizabad, nakuha ng Kompanya sa Silangang Indiya ang Benares noong 1775,[20][21] ang lungsod na kalaunan ay sunod-sunod na naging bahagi ng Dibisyon ng Benares sa mga Lalawigang Isinuko at Sinakop, mga Lalawigan sa Hilagang-kanluran, at mga Nagkakaisang Lalawigan, at pagkatapos ng kalayaan ng India sa Uttar Pradesh.[22]

Ang paghahabi ng sutla, mga alpombra at paglilikok, at turismo ay gumagamit ng malaking bilang ng lokal na populasyon, gayundin ang Banaras Locomotive Works at Bharat Heavy Electricals. Ang Varanasi ay isang sentro ng kultura ng hilagang India na malapit na nauugnay sa Ganges. Naniniwala ang mga Hindu na ang pagkamatay dito at ang pag-abo sa tabi ng pampang ng ilog ng Ganges ay nagpapahintulot sa siklo ng muling pagsilang na maputol at maging posible ang kaligtasan.[23] Kilala ang lungsod sa buong mundo para sa maraming ghat nito, mga hakbang pababa sa matarik na pampang ng ilog patungo sa tubig, kung saan nagsasagawa ng mga ritwal ang mga peregrino. Ang partikular na pansin ay ang Dashashwamedh Ghat, ang Panchganga Ghat, ang Manikarnika Ghat, at ang Harishchandra Ghat, ang huling dalawang lugar kung saan inaabo ng mga Hindu ang kanilang mga patay. Ang mga talaan ng talaangkanang Hindu sa Varanasi ay itinatago rito. Kabilang sa mga kilalang templo sa Varanasi ay ang Templong Kashi Vishwanath ni Shiva, ang Templong Sankat Mochan Hanuman, at ang Templong Durga.

Mga sanggunian[i-edit | i-edit ang source]

  1. Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang urban); $2
  2. "Varanasi City". Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 2021-08-19. Nakuha noong 2022-02-13.
  3. "District Census Handbook Varanasi" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Nakuha noong 23 December 2020.
  4. "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Tinago (PDF) mula sa orihinal noong 17 Oktubre 2013. Nakuha noong 12 Mayo 2014.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Tinago mula sa orihinal (PDF) noong 25 May 2017. Nakuha noong 26 December 2018.
  6. "Yogi Adityanath is right. Route to UP's $1 trillion GDP goal passes through hinterland". Nakuha noong 25 September 2019.[patay na link]
  7. "Executive Summary" (PDF). Nakuha noong 29 December 2019.
  8. "Slum Free City Plan of Action Varanasi" (PDF).
  9. http://ssca.org.in/media/4_2016_HDI_t1hcMZm.pdf
  10. Parry, Jonathan P. (2000) [orihinal: 1994], Death in Banaras, Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures, Cambridge University Press, pa. 1, ISBN 9780521466257, Sipi: As a place to die, to dispose of the physical remains of the deceased and to perform the rites which ensure that the departest attains a 'good state' after death, the north Indian city of Banaras attracts pilgrims and mourners from all over the Hindu world.
  11. San Chirico, Kerry P. C. (2012), "Banaras", sa Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (mga pat.), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, Volume 1, pa. 114–116, ISBN 9780761927297, Sipi: Varanasi is the city's revived, post-independence designation, which combines the names of two rivers on either side of it.
  12. San Chirico, Kerry P. C. (2012), "Banaras", sa Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (mga pat.), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, Volume 1, pa. 114–116, ISBN 9780761927297, Sipi: The city was identified in the Pali language as Baranasi, from which emerged the corrupt form of the name, "Banaras," by which the city is still widely known.
  13. The name that appears on the 1909 version official map of India
  14. San Chirico, Kerry P. C. (2012), "Banaras", sa Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (mga pat.), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, Volume 1, pa. 114–116, ISBN 9780761927297, Sipi: ... in the fifth century BCE, ..., the Kingdom of Kashi was one of the 16 kingdoms to emerge from the ascendant Aryan tribes.
  15. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia (September 1, 2021), "Varanasi", Encyclopaedia Britannica, nakuha noong December 14, 2021, Sipi: Varanasi, also called Benares, Banaras, or Kashi, city, southeastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. {{citation}}: Ang |first= ay may generic na pangalan (tulong)
  16. Kumar, Nita (2017) [orihinal: 1988], The Artisans of Banaras: Popular Culture and Identity, 1880–1986, Princeton Legacy Library, Princeton University Press, pa. 18, ISBN 9781400886999, Sipi: Contrary to the experience of most artisan production in modern times, the silk weaving industry has actually flourished and remained the commercial backbone of the Hindu pilgrimage and religious centre of Banaras
  17. San Chirico, Kerry P. C. (2012), "Banaras", sa Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (mga pat.), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, Volume 1, pa. 114–116, ISBN 9780761927297, Sipi: This was the period in which an enduring cultural imprint was made in ... the establishment of muhallas or neighborhoods that exist to this day, in the presence of Sufi shrines dotting the landscape, and in the creation of a singular syncretic culture ... Today Islam accounts for more than one-third of Varanasi city's population. There are as many Muslims here as there are Brahmans, the majority of whom are weavers. The relationship between the Muslims who weave Banaras's famous saris and the Hindus who sell them explains in part by historically there has been less communal tension here than in other cities throughout South Asia.
  18. San Chirico, Kerry P. C. (2012), "Banaras", sa Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (mga pat.), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, Volume 1, pa. 114–116, ISBN 9780761927297
  19. "When the spirit of Kabir took over the ancient ghats of Benares". The Sunday Guardian Live. 30 November 2019. Nakuha noong 29 December 2019.
  20. Bourke, Richard (8 September 2015), Empire and Revolution: The Political Life of Edmund Burke, Princeton University Press, pa. 843, ISBN 9780691145112, Sipi: Since 1724 Awadh, “in extent about the size of England,” had enjoyed effective autonomy as a quasi-independent province within the Mughal Empire. It came to terms with the British after the Battle of Buxar in 1764, finally signing up to the Treaty of Benares in 1773. This imposed on the Wazir of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daula, the obligation to accept troops stationed in his territory while paying a subsidy to the British for the privilege. The Wazir’s successor, Asaf-ud-Daula, agreed to increase this subsidy under the Treaty of Faizabad in 1775, at the same time ceding Benares to the Company.
  21. Markovitz, Claude (24 September 2004), "Birth of the British Empire in India (1765–1818)", sa Markovits, Claude (pat.), A History of Modern India, 1480–1950, Anthem Press, ISBN 9781843311522, Sipi: In the face of the hostility of all the dynamic forces of the country, the threat of the Marathas looming large on the frontiers, Asaf could count henceforth only on the help of the English, who exerted themselves to use this tumultuous situation to the full. In exchange for their military protection, the nawab granted them as early as 1775 the control of the region of Benares, in addition to a substantial increase in indemnity.
  22. Bayly, Christopher, Rulers, townsmen, and bazaars: north Indian society in the age of British expansion, 1770–1870, Cambridge University Press, pa. xii–xiii, Sipi: In 1801 a large area of Awadh situated in the Doab and Rohilkhand were ceded to the British. It was added to districts conquered from the Marathas in 1803–4 around Delhi and Agra to form the 'Conquered and Ceded Provinces' of the British Bengal Presidency. The term 'Western Provinces' and later 'North-Western Provinces' came into gradual use to describe this area and the adjoining Benares Division; ... In 1856 the remaining 'Reserved Dominions' of the ruler of Awadh were annexed to become the British Province of Oudh under a Chief Commissioner. In 1901 the two provinces were amalgamated to become the United Province of Agra and Oudh.
  23. Romita Saluja (18 June 2019). "India's City Where People Come to Die". BBC.