Ibn al-Haytham

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Hasan Ibn al-Haytham
(Alhazen)
Kapanganakanc. 965 (0965) (c. 354 AH)[1]
Basra, Iraq
Kamatayanc. 1040 (1041) (c. 430 AH)[2]
Cairo, Egypt
Tirahan
Larangan
Kinikilala dahil saBook of Optics, Doubts Concerning Ptolemy, Alhazen's problem, Analysis,[3] Catoptrics,[4] Horopter, Moon illusion, experimental science, scientific methodology,[5] visual perception, empirical theory of perception, Animal psychology[6]
(Mga) naimpluwensiyahanAristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Galen, Banū Mūsā, Thābit ibn Qurra, Al-Kindi, Ibn Sahl, Abū Sahl al-Qūhī
(Mga) nakaimpluwensiyaOmar Khayyam, Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī, Averroes, Al-Khazini, John Peckham, Witelo, Roger Bacon,[7] Kepler

Si Ibn al-Haytham (latinized ang Ikaapat;[8] buong pangalan Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 9651040 1040) ay isang Arabo[9][10][11][12][13] na matematiko, astronomo, at pisiko ng Ginintuang Panahon sa Islam.[14] Siya ay may makabuluhang kontribusyon sa prinsipyo ng optika at visual na pang-unawa sa partikular, ang kanyang pinakamaimpluwensiyang gawa ay ang kanyang Kitāb al-Manāẓir (كتاب المناظر, "Aklat sa Optika"), na isinulat noong 1011–1021, na edisyong Latin na lamang ang nanatili ngayon.[15] Isang polymath, sumulat din siya sa pilosopiya, teolohiya at panggagamot.[16]

Si Ibn al-Haytham ang unang nagpaliwanag na nagaganap ang paningin pagkarang tumalbog ang liwag sa isang bagay na nakadirekta sa mata.[17] Siya ay din ng isang maagang tagasulong ng ang konsepto na ang isang ipotesis (hypothesis) ay dapat na pinatunayan ng eksperimento batay sa nakukumpirmang pamamaraan o katibayan sa matematika—kaya nauunawaan ang pang-agham na pamamaraan limang siglo bago ang mga siyentista ng Renaissance.[18][19][20][21][22][23]

Ipinanganak sa Basra, ginugol niya ang karamihan ng kanyang produktibong panahon sa Fatimid kabisera ng Cairo at nabuhay pagsulat ng iba't ibang treatise at pagtuturo sa hadlika (noble).[24] Ginagamit ni Ibn al-Haytham paminsan-minsan na ibinigay ang palayaw (byname) na al-Baṣrī ayon sa kanyang lugar ng kapanganakan,[25] o al-Miṣrī ("ng Ehipto").[26]

Sa Europa ng Edad Medya, si Ibn al-Haytham ay pinarangalan bilang Ptolemaeus secundus (ang "Ikalawang Ptolemy")[27] o mas payak "Ang Pisiko".[28] Si Ibn al-Haytham ang naghanda ng daan para sa modernong agham ng pisikal na optika.[29]

Mga tala[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. Falco 2007.
  2. Rosenthal 1960–1961.
  3. O'Connor & Robertson 1999.
  4. El-Bizri 2010, p. 11: "Ibn al-Haytham's groundbreaking studies in optics, including his research in catoptrics and dioptrics (respectively the sciences investigating the principles and instruments pertaining to the reflection and refraction of light), were principally gathered in his monumental opus: Kitåb al-manåóir (The Optics; De Aspectibus or Perspectivae; composed between 1028 CE and 1038 CE)."
  5. Rooney 2012, p. 39: "As a rigorous experimental physicist, he is sometimes credited with inventing the scientific method."
  6. Baker 2012, p. 449: "As shown earlier, Ibn al-Haytham was among the first scholars to experiment with animal psychology.
  7. A. Mark Smith (1996). Ptolemy's Theory of Visual Perception: An English Translation of the Optics. American Philosophical Society. p. 58.
  8. also Alhacen, Avennathan, Avenetan (etc.); the identity of "Alhazen" with Ibn al-Haytham al-Basri "was identified towards the end of the 19th century". (Vernet 1996, p. 788)
  9. Vernet 1996, p. 788: "IBN AL-HAYXHAM, B. AL-HAYTHAM AL-BASRI, AL-MisRl, was identified towards the end of the 19th century with the ALHAZEN, AVENNATHAN and AVENETAN of mediaeval Latin texts. He is one of the principal Arab mathematicians and, without any doubt, the best physicist."
  10. Simon 2006
  11. "OPTICS – Encyclopaedia Iranica" (sa English).
  12. "Ibn al-Haytham | Arab astronomer and mathematician" (sa English).
  13. "Ibn al-Haytham | Infoplease" (sa English).
  14. For the description of his main fields, see e.g. Vernet 1996, p. 788 ("He is one of the principal Arab mathematicians and, without any doubt, the best physicist.") Sabra 2008, Kalin, Ayduz & Dagli 2009 ("Ibn al-Ḥaytam was an eminent eleventh-century Arab optician, geometer, arithmetician, algebraist, astronomer, and engineer."), Dallal 1999 ("Ibn al-Haytham (d. 1039), known in the West as Alhazan, was a leading Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. His optical compendium, Kitab al-Manazir, is the greatest medieval work on optics.")
  15. Selin 2008: "The three most recognizable Islamic contributors to meteorology were: the Alexandrian mathematician/ astronomer Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen 965-1039), the Arab-speaking Persian physician Ibn Sina (Avicenna 980-1037), and the Spanish Moorish physician/jurist Ibn Rushd (Averroes; 1126-1198)." He has been dubbed the "father of modern optics" by the UNESCO. "Impact of Science on Society". UNESCO. 26–27: page-140. 1976.CS1 maint: Extra text (link). "International Year of Light - Ibn Al-Haytham and the Legacy of Arabic Optics" (sa English). Hinango noong 2017-10-09.. "International Year of Light: Ibn al Haytham, pioneer of modern optics celebrated at UNESCO" (sa English). Hinango noong 2017-10-09.. Specifically, he was the first to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and then is directed to one's eyes. Adamson, Peter (7 July 2016). Philosophy in the Islamic World: A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps. Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19-957749-1. More than one of |ISBN= at |isbn= specified (tulong)
  16. Roshdi Rashed, Ibn al-Haytham's Geometrical Methods and the Philosophy of Mathematics: A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics, Volume 5, Routledge (2017), p. 635
  17. Adamson, Peter (7 July 2016). Philosophy in the Islamic World: A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps. Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19-957749-1. More than one of |ISBN= at |isbn= specified (tulong)
  18. Ackerman 1991.
  19. Haq, Syed (2009). "Science in Islam". Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. ISSN 1703-7603. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
  20. G. J. Toomer. Review on JSTOR, Toomer's 1964 review of Matthias Schramm (1963) Ibn Al-Haythams Weg Zur Physik Toomer p.464: "Schramm sums up [Ibn Al-Haytham's] achievement in the development of scientific method."
  21. "International Year of Light - Ibn Al-Haytham and the Legacy of Arabic Optics".
  22. Al-Khalili, Jim (4 January 2009). "The 'first true scientist'". BBC News. Hinango noong 24 September 2013. More than one of |author= at |last= specified (tulong)
  23. Gorini, Rosanna (October 2003). "Al-Haytham the man of experience. First steps in the science of vision" (PDF). Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. 2 (4): 53–55. Hinango noong 2008-09-25. More than one of |accessdate= at |access-date= specified (tulong)
  24. According to Al-Qifti. O'Connor & Robertson 1999.
  25. O'Connor & Robertson 1999
  26. O'Connor & Robertson 1999
  27. Corbin 1993, p. 149.
  28. Lindberg 1967, p. 331
  29. A. Mark Smith (1996). Ptolemy's Theory of Visual Perception: An English Translation of the Optics. American Philosophical Society. p. 57.