|247 BCE–224 CE|
The Parthian Empire in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II (r. 124–91 BC)
|Kabisera||Ctesiphon, Ecbatana, Hecatompylos, Susa, Mithradatkirt, Asaak, Rhages|
|Pamahalaan||Monarkiyang Feudal |
• 247–211 BC
|Arsaces I (first)|
• 208–224 AD
|Artabanus IV (last)|
|1 AD||2,800,000 km2 (1,100,000 mi kuw)|
Ang Imperyong Parthian' (Lumang Persa: 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; Parto: 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; Middle Persian: 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) ay isang rehiyon ng makasaysayang matatagpuan sa hilagang-silangan ng Iran. Sinakop ito ng emperyo ng mga Medo noong ika-7 siglo BCEkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkm. Isinama sa kasunod na Imperyong Akemenida sa ilalim ni Dakilang Ciro noong ika-6 na siglo BC, at naging bahagi ng Helenistikong Imperyong Seleucid kasunod ng pananakop ni Alejandrong Dakila ng ika-4 na siglo-BC.
- Fattah, Hala Mundhir (2009). A Brief History of Iraq. Infobase Publishing. pa. 46. ISBN 978-0-8160-5767-2.
One characteristic of the Parthians that the kings themselves maintained was their nomadic urge. The kings built or occupied numerous cities as their capitals, the most important being Ctesiphon on the Tigris River, which they built from the ancient town of Opis.
- Green 1992, p. 45
- Skjærvø 2004, pp. 348–366.
- Canepa 2018, p. 6.
- Chyet, Michael L. (1997). Afsaruddin, Asma; Krotkoff, Georg; Zahniser, A. H. Mathias (mga pat.). Humanism, Culture, and Language in the Near East: Studies in Honor of Georg Krotkoff. Eisenbrauns. pa. 284. ISBN 978-1-57506-020-0.
In the Middle Persian period (Parthian and Sasanian Empires), Aramaic was the medium of everyday writing, and it provided scripts for writing Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, and Khwarezmian.
- De Jong 2008, p. 24, "It is impossible to doubt that the Parthians were Zoroastrians. The evidence from the Nisa ostraca and the Parthian parchment from Avroman suffice to prove this, by the use of the Zoroastrian calendar, which was restricted in use, as it had been previously, to communication with Iranians only, yielding to the Seleucid calendar whenever the Parthians dealt with non-Zoroastrians. There are indications, however, that the practice of Zoroastrianism had reserved a large place for the cult of divine images, either those of ancestors in the Fravashi cult, or of deities, and for the existence of sanctuaries dedicated to named deities other than Ahura Mazda, and including deities that are of a non-Avestan background. The Parthian god Sasan is a case in point, but better evidence comes from Armenia, where alongside Aramazd and Anahit, Mher and Vahagn, the West Semitic god Barshamin, and Babylonian Nane were worshipped, as well as the Anatolian Tork and the goddess Astghik of disputed origins."
- Brosius 2006, p. 125, "The Parthians and the peoples of the Parthian empire were polytheistic. Each ethnic group, each city, and each land or kingdom was able to adhere to its own gods, their respective cults and religious rituals. In Babylon the city-god Marduk continued to be the main deity alongside the goddesses Ishtar and Nanai, while Hatra's main god, the sun-god Shamash, was revered alongside a multiplicity of other gods."
- Sheldon 2010, p. 231
- Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (Disyembre 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Tinago mula sa orihinal mula 17 Setyembre 2016. Kinuha noong 16 Setyembre 2016.
- Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.