Haplogroup L3 (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup L3

World map of prehistoric human migrations.jpg

Posibleng panahon ng pinagmulan 80,000 to 104,000 YBP [1] OR 60,000 to 70,000 YBP [2]
Posibleng lugar ng pinagmulan East Africa[3]
Ninuno L3'4
Descendants L3a, L3b'f, L3c'd'j, L3e'i'k'x, L3h, M, N
Naglalarawang mga mutasyon 769, 1018, 16311[4]

Sa henetikang mitokondriyal ng tao, ang Haplogroup L3 ay isang human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. Ang Haplogroup L3 ay gumampan ng mahalagang papel sa kasayayan ng species na homo sapiens. Pagkatapos na lumitaw ang haplogroup na ito sa Silangang Aprika, ang isang relatibong maliit na bilang ng mga migrante nito ay nagdala nito patawid sa Dagat Pula tungo sa Arabia na naglunsad ng interkontinental na migrasyon na kalaunang nagpakalat ng tao sa iba't ibang panig ng mundo maliban sa Antarctica. Ang maliit na pangkat na ito ay nagpalitaw sa bawat hindi-Aprikanong haplogroup.[5]

Ang L3 ay pinaniniwalaang lumitaw sa Silangang Aprika sa pagitan ng 84,000 hanggang 104,000 taong nakakaraan.[1] Ang pagsisiyasat ng 369 kumpletong Aprikanong L3 sekwensiya ay naglalagay ng maksimum na paglawak nito noong ∼70,000 taong nakakaraan.[6] Ang Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor para sa liping L3 ay kamakailang tinantiya sa pagitan ng 58,900 hanggang 70,200 taong nakakaraan.[7]

Distribusyon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Ito ay pinakakaraniwan sa Silangang Aprika salungat sa ibang mga bahagi ng Aprika kung saan ang mga haplogroup na L1 at L2 ay kumakatawan sa 2/3 ng mga mtDNA.[8] Ang L3 ay nahahati sa ilang mga clade na ang dalawa ay nagpalitaw sa mga macro-haplogroup M at N na pinagmulan ng karamihan ng mga hindi-Aprikano.[9][10] Ang L3 ang haplogroup na pinagmulan ng lahat ng mga taong nasa labas ng Aprika o hindi Aprikano.[11]

Distribusyong mga subgrupong Aprikano[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Puno[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Ang punong pilohenetiko ng mga haplogroup L3 subclade ay batay sa papel Mannis van Oven at Manfred Kayser na Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[4] at mga kalaunang inilimbag na pagsasaliksik.

Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)

  • L1-6
    • L2-6
      • L2'3'4'6
        • L3'4'6
          • L3'4
            • L3
              • L3a
              • L3b'f
                • L3b
                  • L3b1
                    • L3b1a
                      • L3b1a1
                      • L3b1a2
                    • L3b1b
                      • L3b1b1
                  • L3b2
                • L3f
                  • L3f1
                    • L3f1a
                    • L3f1b
                      • L3f1b1
                      • L3f1b2
                        • L3f1b2a
                      • 150
                        • L3f1b3
                        • L3f1b4
                          • L3f1b4a
                            • L3f1b4a1
                  • L3f2
                    • L3f2b
                  • L3f3
              • L3c'd'j
                • L3c
                • L3d
                  • L3d1-5
                    • L3d1
                      • L3d1a
                        • L3d1a1
                          • L3d1a1a
                      • L3d1b
                        • L3d1b1
                      • L3d1c
                      • L3d1d
                    • 199
                      • L3d2
                      • L3d5
                    • L3d3
                      • L3d3a
                    • L3d4
                    • L3d5
                • L3j
              • L3e'i'k'x
                • L3e
                  • L3e1
                    • L3e1a
                      • L3e1a1
                        • L3e1a1a
                      • 152
                        • L3e1a2
                        • L3e1a3
                    • L3e1b
                    • L3e1c
                    • L3e1d
                    • L3e1e
                  • L3e2
                    • L3e2a
                      • L3e2a1
                        • L3e2a1a
                        • L3e2a1b
                          • L3e2a1b1
                    • L3e2b
                      • L3e2b1
                        • L32b1a
                      • L3e2b2
                      • L3e2b3
                  • L3e3'4'5
                    • L3e3'4
                      • L3e3
                        • L3e3a
                        • L3e3b
                          • L3e3b1
                        • L3e4
                    • L3e5
                • L3i
                  • L3i1
                    • L3i1a
                    • L3i1b
                  • L3i2
                • L3k
                • L3x
                  • L3x1
                  • L3x2
                    • L3x2a
                      • L3x2a1
                        • L3x2a1a
                    • L3x2b
              • L3h
                • L3h1
                  • L3h1a
                    • L3h1a1
                    • L3h1a2
                      • L3h1a2a
                      • L3h1a2b
                  • L3h1b
                    • L3h1b1
                      • L3h1b1a
                        • L3h1b1a1
                    • L3h1b2
                • L3h2
              • M
              • N

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Gonder, M. K.; Mortensen, H. M.; Reed, F. A.; De Sousa, A.; Tishkoff, S. A. (2006). "Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (3): 757–68. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl209. PMID 17194802.
  2. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/11/16/molbev.msr245.short?rss=1
  3. Salas, A (2002). "The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (5): 1082–111. doi:10.1086/344348. PMC 385086. PMID 12395296.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Van Oven, Mannis; Kayser, Manfred (2009). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–94. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Behar, Doron M.; Villems, Richard; Soodyall, Himla; Blue-Smith, Jason; Pereira, Luisa; Metspalu, Ene; Scozzari, Rosaria; Makkan, Heeran; Tzur, Shay (2008). "The Dawn of Human Matrilineal Diversity". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (5): 1130–40. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.04.002. PMC 2427203. PMID 18439549.
  6. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/11/16/molbev.msr245.short?rss=1
  7. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/11/16/molbev.msr245.short?rss=1
  8. Wallace DC et al. (2000), Origin of haplogroup M in Ethiopia, Am J Hum Genet 67(Suppl):217Padron:Vs
  9. Wallace, D; Brown, MD; Lott, MT (1999). "Mitochondrial DNA variation in human evolution and disease". Gene. 238 (1): 211–30. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00295-4. PMID 10570998.
  10. Maca-Meyer, Nicole; González, Ana M; Larruga, José M; Flores, Carlos; Cabrera, Vicente M (2001). "Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions". BMC Genetics. 2: 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-2-13. PMC 55343. PMID 11553319.
  11. https://www.cambridgedna.com/genealogy-dna-ancient-migrations-slideshow.php?view=step3
  12. Černý, Viktor; Fernandes, Verónica; Costa, Marta D; Hájek, Martin; Mulligan, Connie J; Pereira, Luísa (2009). "Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 63. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-63. PMC 2680838. PMID 19309521.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 Kivisild, T; Reidla, M; Metspalu, E; Rosa, A; Brehm, A; Pennarun, E; Parik, J; Geberhiwot, T; Usanga, E (2004). "Ethiopian Mitochondrial DNA Heritage: Tracking Gene Flow Across and Around the Gate of Tears". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (5): 752–70. doi:10.1086/425161. PMC 1182106. PMID 15457403. Maling banggit (Invalid <ref> tag; name "Kivisild" defined multiple times with different content); $2
  14. 14.0 14.1 Liane Fendt et al., MtDNA diversity of Ghana: a forensic and phylogeographic view, 2011
  15. Anderson, S. 2006, Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of African mitochondrial DNA variation.
  16. Bandelt, HJ; Alves-Silva, J; Guimarães, PE; Santos, MS; Brehm, A; Pereira, L; Coppa, A; Larruga, JM; Rengo, C (2001). "Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial haplogroup L3e: a snapshot of African prehistory and Atlantic slave trade". Annals of Human Genetics. 65 (Pt 6): 549–63. doi:10.1017/S0003480001008892. PMID 11851985.
  17. Plaza, Stéphanie; Salas, Antonio; Calafell, Francesc; Corte-Real, Francisco; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Carracedo, Ángel; Comas, David (2004). "Insights into the western Bantu dispersal: mtDNA lineage analysis in Angola". Human Genetics. 115 (5): 439–47. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1164-0. PMID 15340834.
  18. Fadhlaoui-Zid, K.; Plaza, S.; Calafell, F.; Ben Amor, M.; Comas, D.; Bennamar, A.; Gaaied, El (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA Heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 3): 222–33. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00096.x. PMID 15180702.
  19. Watson, E; Forster, P; Richards, M; Bandelt, H (1997). "Mitochondrial Footprints of Human Expansions in Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (3): 691–704. doi:10.1086/515503. PMC 1715955. PMID 9326335.
  20. Stevanovitch, A.; Gilles, A.; Bouzaid, E.; Kefi, R.; Paris, F.; Gayraud, R. P.; Spadoni, J. L.; El-Chenawi, F.; Beraud-Colomb, E. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in a Sedentary Population from Egypt". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 1): 23–39. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00057.x. PMID 14748828.
  1. GUR46 on table 1. is a mtDNA haplogroup L3x2a.

Punong ebolusyonaryo ng mga mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup na pantao

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1-6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T