Slide rule

Mula sa Wikipediang Tagalog, ang malayang ensiklopedya
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Isang pangkaraniwang slide rule (Pickett N902-T simplex trig) na 10 pulgada ang haba at pang-estudyante.

Ang slide rule na kilala sa Estados Unidos bilang slipstick,[1] ay isang mekanikal na analogong kompyuter.[2][3][4][5][6] Ang slide rule ay pangunahing ginagamit para sa multiplikasyon at dibisyon gayundin para sa mga ugat, mga logaritmo at trigonometriya ngunit hindi normal na ginagamit para sa adisyon o subtraksiyon. Ang mga slide rule na minapaktura para sa mga espesyalisadong larangan gaya ng abiasyon o pinansiya ay tipikal na nagpapakita ng mga karagdagang iskala na tumutulong sa mga kalkulasyon karaniwan sa larangang ito. Pinaunlad nina William Oughtred at iba pa ang slide rule noong ika-17 siglo batay sa umaahon na gawa sa mga logaritmo ni John Napier. Bago ang pagdating ng mga kalkulador, ang slide rule ang pinakakaraniwang ginagamit na kasangkapan ng pagkukwenta sa agham at inhinyerya. Ang paggamit ng mga slide rule ay patuloy na lumago noong mga 1950 at 1960 kahit pa unti unting ipinapakilala ang mga kompyuter. Gayunpaman, noong mga 1974, ang pagdating ng mga kalkulador na siyentipiko ay gumawa ritong malaking hindi na ginagamit.[7][8][9][10].

Isang slide rule na nakaposisyon upang ang sukat ay dumami ng padalawa-dalawa (mag-multiply by 2. Ang bawat isang bilang sa eskalang D (nasa ibaba) ay doble nang bilang na nasa itaas nito na nasa eskalang C (gitna).

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. Lester V. Berrey and Melvin van den Bark (1953). American Thesaurus of Slang: A Complete Reference Book of Colloquial Speech. Crowell. 
  2. Roger R. Flynn (June 2002). Computer sciences. 1. Macmillan. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-02-865567-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=SB06AQAAIAAJ. Hinango noong 30 March 2013. "The slide rule is an example of a mechanical analog computer..." 
  3. Eric G. Swedin; David L. Ferro (24 October 2007). Computers: The Life Story of a Technology. JHU Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8018-8774-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=IJXYoPiwvOMC&pg=PA26. Hinango noong 30 March 2013. "Other analog mechanical computers included slide rules, the differential analyzer built by Vannevar E. Bush (1890–1974) at the ..." 
  4. Peter Grego (2009). Astronomical cybersketching. Springer. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-387-85351-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=76WYfd1zlHAC&pg=PA12. Hinango noong 30 March 2013. "It is astonishing to think that much of the routine mathematical work that put people into orbit around Earth and landed astronauts on the Moon in the 1960s was performed using an unassuming little mechanical analog computer – the 'humble' slide rule." 
  5. Ernst Bleuler; Robert Ozias Haxby (21 September 2011). Electronic Methods. Academic Press. p. 638. ISBN 978-0-08-085975-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=0ZabGiKp1nEC&pg=PA638. Hinango noong 30 March 2013. "For example, slide rules are mechanical analog computers," 
  6. Harry Henderson (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Revised Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4381-1003-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=3Tla6d153uwC&pg=PA13. Hinango noong 30 March 2013. "Another analog computer, the slide rule, became the constant companion of scientists, engineers, and students until it was replaced ... logarithmic proportions, allowing for quick multiplication, division, the extraction of square roots, and sometimes the calculation of trigonometric functions." 
  7. Behrens, Lawrence; Rosen, Leonard J. (1982). Writing and reading across the curriculum. Little, Brown. p. 273. "Then, just a decade ago, the invention of the pocket calculator made the slide rule obsolete almost overnight..." 
  8. Maor, Eli (2009). e: The Story of a Number. Princeton University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-691-14134-3. "Then in the early 1970s the first electronic hand-held calculators appeared on the market, and within ten years the slide rule was obsolete." 
  9. Castleden, Rodney (2007). Inventions that Changed the World. Futura. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-7088-0786-6. "With the invention of the calculator the slide rule became instantly obsolete." 
  10. Denning, Peter J.; Metcalfe, Robert M. (1998). Beyond calculation: the next fifty years of computing. Springer. p. xiv. ISBN 978-0-387-98588-6. "The first hand calculator appeared in 1972 and made the slide rule obsolete overnight."