Digmaang Vietnam

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Digmaang Vietnam
(Chiến tranh Việt Nam)
Bahagi ng Pangalawang Digmaang Indotsino at Digmaang Malamig
paikot sa kanan, mula sa tuktok kaliwa:: U.S. combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tet Nakakasakit, two Douglas A-4C Skyhawks en route for airstrikes against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, Mga mamayamang tinatakbuhan ang 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, Ang paglibing sa tatlong daang biktima ng Huế Massacre.
Petsa 1 November 1955[A 1] – 30 Abril 1975 (1975-04-30)
(19 buwan, 5 buwan, 4 linggo at 1 araw)
Lokasyon Timog Vietnam, Hilagang Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
Resulta Pagwawagi ng Hilagang Vietnam
  • Pag-urong ng pwersang Amerikano sa Indotsino
  • Sinakop ng Hilagang Vietnam ang Timog Vietnam
Pagbabago sa
Pagkakaisa ng Hilagang Vietnam at Timog Vietnam upang maging Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Mga Nakikidigma
Anti-communist forces:

 South Vietnam
Estados Unidos Estados Unidos
 Timog Korea
 New Zealand
 Khmer Republic
Pilipinas Pilipinas

Suportado ng:
 Republic of China[5]
Canada Canada[5]
 West Germany[5]
 United Kingdom[5]
Iran Iran[5]
Espanya Espanya[5]

Communist forces:

 North Vietnam
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Viet Cong
Cambodia Khmer Rouge
Laos Pathet Lao

Suportado ng:
 Unyong Sobyet
 Hilagang Korea
Bulgaria Bulgaria[12]
 East Germany[13]
Romania Romanya

South Vietnam Ngô Đình Diệm
South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
South Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
South Vietnam Cao Văn Viên
South Vietnam Ngô Quang Trưởng
Estados Unidos John F. Kennedy
Estados Unidos Lyndon B. Johnson
Estados Unidos Richard Nixon
Estados Unidos Robert McNamara
Estados Unidos William Westmoreland
Estados Unidos Creighton Abrams
Estados Unidos Frederick C. Weyand
Timog Korea Park Chung-hee
Thailand Thanom Kittikachorn
Australia Robert Menzies
Australia Harold Holt
Australia John McEwen
Australia John Gorton
Australia William McMahon
Pilipinas Ferdinand Marcos
New Zealand Keith Holyoake
New Zealand Jack Marshall
New Zealand Norman Kirk
and others
North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnam Lê Duẩn
North Vietnam Võ Nguyên Giáp
North Vietnam Văn Tiến Dũng
North Vietnam Lê Trọng Tấn
North Vietnam Phạm Văn Đồng
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Hoàng Văn Thái
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Trần Văn Trà
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Linh
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
and others
≈1,830,000 (1968)

 South Vietnam: 850,000 (1968)
1,500,000 (1974–75)[14]
 United States: 536,100 (1968)
Free World Military Forces:[15][16]

  •  South Korea: 50,003
  •  Thailand: 11,586
  •  Australia: 7,672
  •  Philippines: 2,061
  •  New Zealand: 552[17]
  • Espanya Spain 30

 North Vietnam: 287,465 (January 1968)[18]
 China: 170,000 (in 1965–69)[19][20]
 Soviet Union: 3,000
 North Korea: 300–600

 South Vietnam
195,000–430,000 civilian dead[22] [23][24]
220,357[25]–313,000 military dead[26]
1,170,000 wounded[27]

 United States
58,307 dead;[28] 303,644 wounded[A 2]
 South Korea
5,099 dead; 10,962 wounded; 4 missing
500 dead; 3,129 wounded
351 dead; 1,358 wounded[34]
 New Zealand
37 dead; 187 wounded
9 dead;[36] 64 wounded[37]

Total dead: 479,660–807,303
Total wounded: ≈1,490,000+[27]

Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam North Vietnam & Viet Cong
65,000[23] civilian dead
444,000[23]–1,100,000 military dead or missing[38]
600,000+ wounded[39]

≈1,100 dead and 4,200 wounded[21]
 Soviet Union
16 dead[40]
 North Korea
14 dead[41]

Total dead: 455,476–1,170,476
Total wounded: ≈608,200

Vietnamese civilian dead: 627,000–2,000,000[23][42][43]

Cambodian Civil War dead: 200,000–300,000*[44][45][46]
Laotian Civil War dead: 20,000–200,000*
Total civilian dead: 847,000–2,500,000**
Total dead: 1,484,000–3,886,026 Aircraft losses
* indicates approximations, see Casualties below
For more information see Vietnam War casualties
** This figure includes all of the dead from the Laotian and Cambodian civil wars.

Ang Digmaang Biyetnam(Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam) , kilala din sa tawag Pangalawang Digmaang Indotsino, at sa Biyetnam bilang Digmaang Amerikano, ay nangyari noong 1959 hanggang Abril 30, 1975.

Annotations[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. Due to the early presence of American troops in Vietnam the start date of the Vietnam War is a matter of debate. In 1998, after a high level review by the Department of Defense (DoD) and through the efforts of Richard B. Fitzgibbon's family the start date of the Vietnam War according to the US government was officially changed to 1 November 1955.[1] U.S. government reports currently cite 1 November 1955 as the commencement date of the "Vietnam Conflict", because this date marked when the U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Indochina (deployed to Southeast Asia under President Truman) was reorganized into country-specific units and MAAG Vietnam was established.[2] Other start dates include when Hanoi authorized Viet Cong forces in South Vietnam to begin a low-level insurgency in December 1956,[3] whereas some view 26 September 1959 when the first battle occurred between the Viet Cong and the South Vietnamese army, as the start date.[4]
  2. The figures of 58,220 and 303,644 for U.S. deaths and wounded come from the Department of Defense Statistical Information Analysis Division (SIAD), Defense Manpower Data Center, as well as from a Department of Veterans fact sheet dated May 2010[29] the CRS (Congressional Research Service) Report for Congress, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, dated 26 February 2010,[30] and the book Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant.[31] Some other sources give different figures (e.g. the 2005/2006 documentary Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 cited elsewhere in this article gives a figure of 58,159 U.S. deaths,[25] and the 2007 book Vietnam Sons gives a figure of 58,226)[32]

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. DoD 1998
  2. Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
  3. Olson & Roberts 1991, p. 67.Padron:Cnf
  4. Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–346; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 "ALLIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM". http://www.psywarrior.com/AlliesRepublicVietnam.html. Hinango noong 24 September 2011. 
  6. "Chapter Three: 1957-1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF). University of Malaya Student Repository. p. 72. http://studentsrepo.um.edu.my/747/4/BAB3.pdf. Hinango noong 17 October 2015. 
  7. "Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers)" (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-983-2220-26-8. Sininop mula sa orihinal na pahina noong 16 October 2015. http://www.idfr.gov.my/images/stories/publication/2008/tunku.pdf. Hinango noong 17 October 2015. "The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint." 
  8. The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. Page 76
  9. Cuba in the World, 1979. Page 66
  10. "Cesky a slovensky svet". Svet.czsk.net. http://www.svet.czsk.net/clanky/svet/koreapokusy.html. Hinango noong 24 February 2014. 
  11. "Bilaterální vztahy České republiky a Vietnamské socialistické republiky | Mezinárodní vztahy | e-Polis – Internetový politologický časopis". E-polis.cz. http://www.e-polis.cz/mezinarodni-vztahy/322-bilateralni-vztahy-ceske-republiky-a-vietnamske-socialisticke-republiky.html. Hinango noong 24 February 2014. 
  12. "Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s". Library of Congress. 1992. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+bg0066). "Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Bulgaria gave official military support to many national liberation causes, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, (North Vietnam)…" 
  13. "Project MUSE - Sailing in the Shadow of the Vietnam War: The GDR Government and the "Vietnam Bonus" of the Early 1970s". https://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/german_studies_review/v036/36.3.horten.pdf. 
  14. Le Gro, p. 28.
  15. "Vietnam War : US Troop Strength". Historycentral.com. http://www.historycentral.com/Vietnam/Troop.html. Hinango noong 17 October 2009. 
  16. "Facts about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection". nps.gov. http://www.nps.gov/mrc/reader/vvmcr.htm.  (citing The first American ground combat troops landed in South Vietnam during March 1965, specifically the U.S. Third Marine Regiment, Third Marine Division, deployed to Vietnam from Okinawa to defend the Da Nang, Vietnam, airfield. During the height of U.S. military involvement, 31 December 1968, the breakdown of allied forces were as follows: 536,100 U.S. military personnel, with 30,610 U.S. military having been killed to date; 65,000 Free World Forces personnel; 820,000 South Vietnam Armed Forces (SVNAF) with 88,343 having been killed to date. At the war's end, there were approximately 2,200 U.S. missing in action (MIA) and prisoners of war (POW). Source: Harry G. Summers Jr. Vietnam War Almanac, Facts on File Publishing, 1985.)
  17. The A to Z of the Vietnam War. The Scarecrow Press. 2005. https://books.google.ca/books?id=4VG4AQAAQBAJ&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=troops+both+sides+in+vietnam+war&source=bl&ots=JTphu2kI_8&sig=j5WPbppmSR2pvmB1csxTZR_iCTk&hl=vi&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwinmqfU0tPLAhUX82MKHXEpB3sQ6AEIZjAJ#v=onepage&q=troops%20both%20sides%20in%20vietnam%20war&f=false. 
  18. Vietnam War After Action Reports, BACM Research, 2009, page 430
  19. "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Reuters. 16 May 1989. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1350&dat=19890516&id=HkRPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=_gIEAAAAIBAJ&pg=3769,1925460. Hinango noong 24 December 2013. 
  20. Roy, Denny (1998). China's Foreign Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 27. ISBN 978-0847690138. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 China and Vietnam. http://books.google.com.vn/books?id=GaZvX2BzeegC&pg=PA176. 
  22. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Lewy 1978, pp. 450–3.
  24. Thayer 1985, chap. 12.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software) [Documentary]. Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1-4172-2920-9.
  26. Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations," (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System, http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB6.1A.GIF 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Tucker, Spencer E. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-961-1
  28. "Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund - News". http://www.vvmf.org/news/article=In-Memory-Day-Ceremony-to-honor-165-Vietnam-veterans-whose-lives-were-cut-short-by-their-service. 
  29. America's Wars (Report). Department of Veterans Affairs. Padron:Citation/showdateEN. http://www1.va.gov/opa/publications/factsheets/fs_americas_wars.pdf. 
  30. Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (Padron:Citation/showdateEN). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (Report). Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL32492.pdf. 
  31. Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
  32. Kueter, Dale. Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse (21 March 2007). ISBN 978-1425969318
  33. "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72 | Australian War Memorial". Awm.gov.au. http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/vietnam/statistics.asp. Hinango noong 29 June 2013. 
  34. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History By Spencer C. Tucker "https://books.google.com/?id=qh5lffww-KsC"
  35. "Overview of the war in Vietnam | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War". Vietnamwar.govt.nz. 16 July 1965. http://www.vietnamwar.govt.nz/resources. Hinango noong 29 June 2013. 
  36. "Chapter III: The Philippines". History.army.mil. http://www.history.army.mil/books/Vietnam/allied/ch03.htm. Hinango noong 24 February 2014. 
  37. "Asian Allies in Vietnam". Embassy of South Vietnam. March 1970. http://175thengineers.homestead.com/Philcav.pdf. Hinango noong 18 October 2015. 
  38. Associated Press, 3 April 1995, "Vietnam Says 1.1 Million Died Fighting For North."
  39. Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
  40. Dunnigan, James & Nofi, Albert: Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. St. Martin's Press, 2000, p. 284. ISBN 0-312-25282-X.
  41. "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News. 31 March 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/696970.stm. Hinango noong 18 October 2015. 
  42. Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/23/world/20-years-after-victory-vietnamese-communists-ponder-how-to-celebrate.html. Hinango noong 24 February 2011.  The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.
  43. "fifty years of violent war deaths: data analysis from the world health survey program: BMJ". 23 April 2008. http://www.bmj.com/content/336/7659/1482. Hinango noong 5 January 2013.  From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths … 3.8 million in Vietnam
  44. Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  45. Sliwinski 1995.
  46. Banister, Judith, and Paige Johnson (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia." In Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community, ed. Ben Kiernan. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.

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