Phylum

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Para sa ibang gamit, tingnan ang Phylum (paglilinaw).
LifeDomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Padron:Biological classification/core Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.

Sa taksonomiya ng larangan ng biyolohiya, phylum [isahan] o phyla [maramihan]; Griyego: Φῦλα), o ang lapi, o kalapian, ay isang kahanayang ng pagkakapangkat-pangkat na nasa antas sa ilalim ng kaharian at nasa ibabaw ng biyolohiya. Kinuha ang salitang "phylum" mula sa phylai (φυλαί) ng wikang Griyego, mga grupo ng mga angkan na naninirahan sa mga lungsod ng isinaunang Gresya; may kakayahan at karapatan sa paghalal ng pinunong-kaangkan ang mga phylai. Sa larangan ng taksonomiya, kinakatawan ng mga phylum ang pinakamalaki at pinakakaraniwang kinikilalang pagbubuklod-buklod ng mga hayop at iba pang mga nilalang na may-buhay, at may tiyak na mga katangiang pang-ebolusyonaryo, bagaman kung minsan maaaring ihanay ang mga mismong phylum sa mga superphyla (katulad ng Ecdysozoa na may walong phylum, kabilang ang mga arthropod at bulating-bilog; at ang Deuterostomia na kabilang ang mga echinoderm, chordate, hemichordate at bulating-pana) (arrow worm).

Sa impormal na paraan, maaaring isipin na ang mga phylum isang paglilipon ng mga hayop batay sa isang panlahatang kayarian ng katawan;[1] Tinatawag itong pagpapangkat-pangkat na pang morpolohiya (ayon sa pagkakahawig ng mga anatomiya). Samakatuwid, sa kabila ng tila pagkakaiba ng mga panlabas na mga kaanyuhan ng mga nilalang, inihanay sila sa mga phylum ayon sa kanilang mga panloob na kayarian.[2] Halimbawa, bagaman tila magkahiwalay at magkaiba, kapwa kabilang ang mga gagamba at mga alimango sa mga Arthropoda, samantalang ang mga bulating-lupa at bulating-payat, bagaman magkahugis, ay mula sa dalawang kahanayan. Kabilang ang mga bulating-lupa sa mga Annelida, samantalang ang mga bulating-payat ay mula sa mga Platyhelminthes. Datapwa pinapayagan ng Kodigong Pansandaigdigan ng Pagpapangalang Pang-botaniko ang paggamit ng salitang "phylum ilang panukoy sa mga halaman, higit na mas ginagamit ng mga botanista ang salitang "kahatian".

Ang pinakakilalang mga phylum ng hayop ay ang Mollusca, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, at Chordata. Sa huli nabibilang mga ang mga tao. Bagaman may 35 - humigit-kumulang - na mga phylum, kabilang sa siyam na nabanggit ang karamihan sa mga sari. Marami sa mga phylum ang nabubuhay sa tubig, at nag-iisa lamang ang wala sa mga karagatan ng mundo: ito ang Onychophora o bulating-pelus (bulating-tersiyupelo).

Ang pinakabagong natuklasang sari ay ang Cycliophora[3], na natuklasan noong 1993; tatlong bagong sari lamang ang natuklasan sa loob ng huling dantaon.

Ang pagsabog na Kambriyano ay isang malakihang pamumulaklak ng mga nilalang na may-buhay na naganap sa pagitan, humigit-kumulang, ng 530 at 520 milyong taon na ang nakalipas;[4] noong mga panahong ito mayroon nang mga nilalang na kahawig ng makabagong sari, bagaman hindi naman kabilang sa mga ito;[5] habang ang ilan naman ay parang mga kinatawan na nasa loob ng Ediacaran biota, nananatili itong isang usapin na kung ang lahat ba ng mga sari ay namumuhay na bago man dumating ang pagsabog. Sa loob ng maraming panahon, nagpabagu-bago ang mga gawain ng iba't ibang mga sari. Halimbawa, noong panahong Kambriyano, ang nakalalamang na mga megafauna (megahayop), o malalaking mga hayop, ay ang mga artropoda, ngunit sa ngayon ang mga megahayop ay nalalamangan ng mga vertebrata (kordata)[6] Magpahanggang sa ngayon, ang pinaka-nakalalamang na sari ay ang mga artropoda.

Mga phyla[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Mga hayop[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Protostome Bilateria Nephrozoa
Deuterostome
Basal/disputed Non-Bilateria
Vendobionta
Parazoa
Others
Phylum Kahulugan Karaniwang pangalan Natatanging katangian Inilalarawang taxa
Annelida Little ring [7]:306 Segmented worms Multiple circular segments &0000000000022000.00000022,000 + extant
Agmata Fragmented Agmates Calcareous conical shells 5 species, extinct
Archaeocyatha Ancient cups Archaeocyathids An extinct taxon of sponge-grade, reef-building organisms living in warm tropical and subtropical waters during the Early Cambrian. 3 known classes (Extinct)
Arthropoda Jointed foot Arthropods Segmented bodies and jointed limbs, with Chitin exoskeleton &0000000001250000.0000001,250,000+ extant;[8] 20,000+ extinct
Brachiopoda Arm foot[7]:336 Lampshells[7]:336 Lophophore and pedicle &0000000000000300.000000300-500 extant; 12,000+ extinct
Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) Moss animals Moss animals, sea mats, ectoprocts[7]:332 Lophophore, no pedicle, ciliated tentacles, anus outside ring of cilia &0000000000006000.0000006,000 extant[8]
Chaetognatha Longhair jaw Arrow worms[7]:342 Chitinous spines either side of head, fins &0000000000000100.000000100 extant
Chordata With a cord Chordates Hollow dorsal nerve cord, notochord, pharyngeal slits, endostyle, post-anal tail &0000000000055000.00000055,000+[8]
Cnidaria Stinging nettle Cnidarians Nematocysts (stinging cells) &0000000000016000.00000016,000[8]
Ctenophora Comb bearer Comb jellies[7]:256 Eight "comb rows" of fused cilia &0000000000000100.000000100-150 extant
Cycliophora Wheel carrying Symbion Circular mouth surrounded by small cilia, sac-like bodies &0000000000000003.0000003+
Echinodermata Spiny skin Echinoderms[7]:348 Fivefold radial symmetry in living forms, mesodermal calcified spines &0000000000007500.0000007,500 extant;[8] approx. 13,000 extinct
Entoprocta Inside anus[7]:292 Goblet worms Anus inside ring of cilia &0000000000000150.000000150
Gastrotricha Hairy stomach[7]:288 Gastrotrich worms Two terminal adhesive tubes &0000000000000690.000000690
Gnathostomulida Jaw orifice Jaw worms[7]:260 Tiny worms related to rotifers with no body cavity &0000000000000100.000000100
Hemichordata Half cord[7]:344 Acorn worms, hemichordates Stomochord in collar, pharyngeal slits &0000000000000130.000000130 extant
Kinorhyncha Motion snout Mud dragons Eleven segments, each with a dorsal plate &0000000000000150.000000150
Loricifera Corset bearer Brush heads Umbrella-like scales at each end &0000000000000122.000000122
Micrognathozoa Tiny jaw animals Limnognathia Accordion-like extensible thorax &0000000000000001.0000001
Medusoid Jellyfish-like Medusoids These are extinct creatures described as jellyfish-like and inhabited the late Precambrian, Ediacaran and early Cambrian. 18 genera, extinct
Mollusca Soft[7]:320 Mollusks / molluscs Muscular foot and mantle round shell &0000000000085000.00000085,000+ extant;[8] 80,000+ extinct[9]
Nematoda Thread like Round worms, thread worms[7]:274 Round cross section, keratin cuticle &0000000000025000.00000025,000[8]
Nematomorpha Thread form[7]:276 Horsehair worms, gordian worms[7]:276 Long, thin parasitic worms closely related to nematodes &0000000000000320.000000320
Nemertea A sea nymph[7]:270 Ribbon worms, rhynchocoela[7]:270 Unsegmented worms, with a proboscis housed in a cavity derived from the coelom called the rhynchocoel &0000000000001200.0000001,200
Onychophora Claw bearer Velvet worms[7]:328 Worm-like animal with legs tipped by chitinous claws &0000000000000200.000000200 extant
Petalonamae Shaped like leaves No An extinct phylum from the Ediacaran. They are bottom-dwelling and immobile, shaped like leaves (frondomorphs), feathers or spindles. 3 classes, extinct
Phoronida Zeus's mistress Horseshoe worms U-shaped gut &0000000000000011.00000011
Placozoa Plate animals Trichoplaxes[7]:242 Differentiated top and bottom surfaces, two ciliated cell layers, amoeboid fiber cells in between &0000000000000003.0000003
Platyhelminthes Flat worm[7]:262 Flatworms[7]:262 Flattened worms with no body cavity. Many are parasitic. &0000000000029500.00000029,500[8]
Porifera Pore bearer Sponges[7]:246 Perforated interior wall, simplest of all known animals &0000000000010800.00000010,800 extant[8]
Priapulida Little Priapus Penis worms Penis-shaped worms &0000000000000020.00000020
Proarticulata Before articulates Proarticulates An extinct group of mattress-like organisms that display "glide symmetry." Found during the Ediacaran. 3 classes, extinct
Rhombozoa (Dicyemida) Lozenge animal Rhombozoans[7]:264 Single anteroposterior axial celled endoparasites, surrounded by ciliated cells &0000000000000100.000000100+
Rotifera Wheel bearer Rotifers[7]:282 Anterior crown of cilia &0000000000002000.0000002,000[8]
Saccorhytida Saccus : "pocket" and "wrinkle" Saccorhytus Saccorhytus is only about 1 mm (1.3 mm) in size and is characterized by a spherical or hemispherical body with a prominent mouth. Its body is covered by a thick but flexible cuticle. It has a nodule above its mouth. Around its body are 8 openings in a truncated cone with radial folds. 1 species, extinct
Tardigrada Slow step Water bears, Moss piglets Microscopic relatives of the arthropods, with a four segmented body and head &0000000000001000.0000001,000
Trilobozoa Three-lobed animal Trilobozoan A taxon of mostly discoidal organisms exhibiting tricentric symmetry. All are Ediacaran-aged 18 genera, extinct
Vetulicolia Ancient dweller Vetulicolian Might possibly be a subphylum of the chordates. Their body consists of two parts: a large front part and covered with a large "mouth" and a hundred round objects on each side that have been interpreted as gills - or at least openings in the vicinity of the animal. Their posterior pharynx consists of 7 segments. 15 species, extinct
Xenacoelomorpha Strange hollow form Subphylum Acoelomorpha and xenoturbellida Small, simple animals. Bilaterian, but lacking typical bilaterian structures such as gut cavities, anuses, and circulatory systems[10] &0000000000000400.000000400+
Total: 40 1,525,000[8]

Mga halaman[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Land plants Viridiplantae
Green algae
Other algae (Biliphyta)[11]
Division Meaning Common name Distinguishing characteristics Species described
Anthocerotophyta[12] Anthoceros-like plants Hornworts Horn-shaped sporophytes, no vascular system &0000000000000100.000000100-300+
Bryophyta[12] Bryum-like plants, moss plants Mosses Persistent unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system &0000000000012000.00000012,000
Charophyta Chara-like plants Charophytes &0000000000001000.0000001,000
Chlorophyta (Yellow-)green plants[7]:200 Chlorophytes &0000000000007000.0000007,000
Cycadophyta[13] Cycas-like plants, palm-like plants Cycads Seeds, crown of compound leaves &0000000000000100.000000100-200
Ginkgophyta[14] Ginkgo-like plants Ginkgo, maidenhair tree Seeds not protected by fruit (single living species) &0000000000000001.0000001 extant; 50+ extinct
Glaucophyta Blue-green plants Glaucophytes &0000000000000015.00000015
Gnetophyta[15] Gnetum-like plants Gnetophytes Seeds and woody vascular system with vessels &0000000000000070.00000070
Lycopodiophyta,[16]

Lycophyta[17]

Lycopodium-like plants

Wolf plants

Clubmosses & spikemosses Microphyll leaves, vascular system &0000000000001290.0000001,290 extant
Magnoliophyta Magnolia-like plants Flowering plants, angiosperms Flowers and fruit, vascular system with vessels &0000000000300000.000000300,000
Marchantiophyta,[18]

Hepatophyta[12]

Marchantia-like plants

Liver plants

Liverworts Ephemeral unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system &0000000000009000.0000009,000
Polypodiophyta,

Monilophyta

Polypodium-like plants
Ferns Megaphyll leaves, vascular system &0000000000010560.00000010,560
Pinophyta,[16]

Coniferophyta[19]

Pinus-like plants

Cone-bearing plant

Conifers Cones containing seeds and wood composed of tracheids &0000000000000629.000000629 extant
Rhodophyta Rose plants Red algae Use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments. &0000000000007000.0000007,000
Total: 14

Fungi[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Dibisyon Kahulugan Karaniwang pangalan Natatanging katangian Inilalarawang espesye
Ascomycota Bladder fungus[7]:396 Ascomycetes,[7]:396 sac fungi Tend to have fruiting bodies (ascocarp).[20] Filamentous, producing hyphae separated by septa. Can reproduce asexually.[21] 30,000
Basidiomycota Small base fungus[7]:402 Basidiomycetes,[7]:402 club fungi Bracket fungi, toadstools, smuts and rust. Sexual reproduction.[22] 31,515
Blastocladiomycota Offshoot branch fungus[23] Blastoclads Less than 200
Chytridiomycota Little cooking pot fungus[24] Chytrids Predominantly Aquatic saprotrophic or parasitic. Have a posterior flagellum. Tend to be single celled but can also be multicellular.[25][26][27] 1000+
Glomeromycota Ball of yarn fungus[7]:394 Glomeromycetes, AM fungi[7]:394 Mainly arbuscular mycorrhizae present, terrestrial with a small presence on wetlands. Reproduction is asexual but requires plant roots.[22] 284
Microsporidia Small seeds[28] Microsporans[7]:390 1400
Neocallimastigomycota New beautiful whip fungus[29] Neocallimastigomycetes Predominantly located in digestive tract of herbivorous animals. Anaerobic, terrestrial and aquatic.[30] approx. 20 [31]
Zygomycota Pair fungus[7]:392 Zygomycetes[7]:392 Most are saprobes and reproduce sexually and asexually.[30] aprox. 1060
Total: 8

Protista[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Harosa
Protozoa
Phylum/Dibisyon Kahulugan Karaniwang pangalan Natatanging katangian Halimbawa Inilalarawang espesye
Amoebozoa Amorphous animal Amoebas Presence of pseudopodia Amoeba 2400
Bigyra Two rings
Cercozoa
Choanozoa Funnel animal Presence of a colar of microvilli surrounding a flagellum 125
Ciliophora Cilia bearer Ciliates Presence of multiple cilia and a cytostome Paramecium 4500
Cryptista Hidden
Euglenozoa True eye animal Euglena 800
Foraminifera Hole bearers Forams Complex shells with one or more chambers Forams 10000, 50000 extinct
Haptophyta
Loukozoa Groove animal
Metamonada Middle single-celled organisms Giardia
Microsporidia Small spore
Myzozoa Suckling animal 1555+
Ochrophyta Yellow plant Diatoms
Oomycota Egg fungus[7]:184 Oomycetes
Percolozoa
Radiozoa Ray animal Radiolarians
Sarcomastigophora Flesh and whip bearer
Sulcozoa
Total: 19

The Catalogue of Life includes Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta in kingdom Plantae,[32] but other systems consider these phyla part of Protista.[33]

Bacteria[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Currently there are bacterial 40 phyla (not including "Cyanobacteria") that have been validly published according to the Bacteriological Code[34]

  1. Acidobacteriota, phenotypically diverse and mostly uncultured
  2. Actinomycetota, High-G+C Gram positive species
  3. Aquificota, deep-branching
  4. Armatimonadota
  5. Atribacterota
  6. Bacillota, Low-G+C Gram positive species, such as the spore-formers Bacilli (aerobic) and Clostridia (anaerobic)
  7. Bacteroidota
  8. Balneolota
  9. Bdellovibrionota
  10. Caldisericota, formerly candidate division OP5, Caldisericum exile is the sole representative
  11. Calditrichota
  12. Campylobacterota
  13. Chlamydiota
  14. Chlorobiota, green sulphur bacteria
  15. Chloroflexota, green non-sulphur bacteria
  16. Chrysiogenota, only 3 genera (Chrysiogenes arsenatis, Desulfurispira natronophila, Desulfurispirillum alkaliphilum)
  17. Coprothermobacterota
  18. Deferribacterota
  19. Deinococcota, Deinococcus radiodurans and Thermus aquaticus are "commonly known" species of this phyla
  20. Dictyoglomota
  21. Elusimicrobiota, formerly candidate division Thermite Group 1
  22. Fibrobacterota
  23. Fusobacteriota
  24. Gemmatimonadota
  25. Ignavibacteriota
  26. Kiritimatiellota
  27. Lentisphaerota, formerly clade VadinBE97
  28. Mycoplasmatota, notable genus: Mycoplasma
  29. Myxococcota
  30. Nitrospinota
  31. Nitrospirota
  32. Planctomycetota
  33. Pseudomonadota, the most well-known phylum, containing species such as Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  34. Rhodothermota
  35. Spirochaetota, species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease
  36. Synergistota
  37. Thermodesulfobacteriota
  38. Thermomicrobiota
  39. Thermotogota, deep-branching
  40. Verrucomicrobiota

Archaea[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Currently there are 2 phyla that have been validly published according to the Bacteriological Code[34]

  1. Nitrososphaerota
  2. Thermoproteota, second most common archaeal phylum

Other phyla that have been proposed, but not validly named, include:

  1. "Euryarchaeota", most common archaeal phylum
  2. "Korarchaeota"
  3. "Nanoarchaeota", ultra-small symbiotes, single known species

Tingnan din[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. Valentine, James W. (2004). On the Origin of Phyla (Hinggil sa Pinagmulan ng mga Phylum). Chicago: Palimbagang Pampamantasan ng Chicago. pa. 7. 0226845486.". Ginagamit na ang klasipikasyon ng mga organismo sa mga pamamaraan ng pag-aantas nang dumating ang ika-labimpito at ika-labingwalong mga dantaon. Karaniwang tinitipon ang mga nilalang ayon sa kanilang mga pagkakatulad na pang-morpolohiya, ayon sa kaalaman ng mga isinaunang mga dalubhasa, at ang mga kalipunang ito ay muling inihanay ayon sa kanilang mga pagkakatulad, at iba pa, upang makabuo ng pag-aantas (hirarkiya)."
  2. Parker, Andrew (2003). In the blink of an eye: How vision kick-started the big bang of evolution (Sa isang kisap-mata: Paano pinanimulan ng paningin ang pagsabog at paglaganap ng ebolusyon). Sydney: Free Press. pa. 1–4. 0743257332." Ang trabaho ng biyolohistang ebololusyonaryo ay ang mabigyan ng kahulugan ang masalimuot na pagsasalunggatan ng hubog - hindi laging may kaugnayan sa pagitan ng panloob at panlabas na mga bahagi ng katawan. Noong unang kapanahunan ng paksang ito, naging lantad na ang mga kayariang panloob - sa pangkalahataan - ay higit na mahalaga sa mataas na kahanayan ng mga hayop, kaysa sa mga panlabas na hugis. Naglalagay ng malawakang limitasyon ang panlabas na kayarian sa kung paano humihinga, kumakain at gumagawa ng supling ang isang hayop."
  3. "… kapag may isang bagong tuklas na sari ng hayop, hindi man pangkaraniwan, maaaring ihanay ito sa isang kilala nang lupon ng mga nilalang na may katulad na kayarian ng katawan o sari. Bagaman mayroon nang higit sa 1.5 milyong kilalang mga sari sa mundo, maaari silang ihanay sa loob ng 35 o higit pa na mga sari. Kabilang sa mga ito ang mga kordata (chordate, mga vertebrata katulad ng tao), mga molusk (mga suso) at artropoda (may mga binting magkakaugpong; mga kulisap). Subalit, ang S. pandora ay lubhang hindi pangkaraniwan kung kaya't hindi ito maihanay sa kahit na anong umiiral na kasarian, at dahil dito isang bagong sari ang iminungkahi: ang Cycliophora" [1] (pinuntahan ang URL noong 5 Hulyo 2006)
  4. Valentine, J.W.; Jablonski, D.; Erwin, D.H. (1 Marso 1999). "Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion (Mga bakas, molekula at embriyo: mga bagong pananaw hinggil sa Kambriyanong pagsabog)". Development (Kaunlaran). 126: 851–859. Kinuha noong 17 Mayo 2007. {{cite journal}}: Bawal ang italic o bold markup sa: |journal= (help)
  5. Budd, G.E.; Jensen, S. (2000). "A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla (Isang mapagpunang pagsusuri ng talaan ng mga bakas ng saring bilateryano)". Biological Reviews. 75 (02): 253–295. doi:10.1017/S000632310000548X. Kinuha noong 26 Mayo 2007.
  6. "Ang Kambriyanong Pagsabog… Ang hangganan ng mga organismo ay umaabot mula sa mga prokaryotiko cyanobacteria hanggang sa mga eukaryotikong luntian at pulang alga, esponghang-dagat, brakyopoda, priyapulida, anelida, at maraming iba't ibang lipon ng mga artropoda groups, maging mga ekinoderma at maaaring isa sa mga unang kordata."[2] Naka-arkibo 2007-04-16 sa Wayback Machine. (pinuntahan ang URL noong 5 Hulyo 2006)
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 Margulis, Lynn; Chapman, Michael J. (2009). Kingdoms and Domains (ika-4th corrected (na) edisyon). London: Academic Press. ISBN 9780123736215.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang Zhang2013); $2
  9. Feldkamp, S. (2002) Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, USA. (pp. 725)
  10. Cannon, J.T.; Vellutini, B.C.; Smith, J.; Ronquist, F.; Jondelius, U.; Hejnol, A. (4 February 2016). "Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa". Nature. 530 (7588): 89–93. Bibcode:2016Natur.530...89C. doi:10.1038/nature16520. PMID 26842059. S2CID 205247296.
  11. Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang 6kingdoms); $2
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Mauseth, James D. (2012). Botany : An Introduction to Plant Biology (ika-5th (na) edisyon). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1-4496-6580-7. p. 489
  13. Mauseth 2012, p. 540.
  14. Mauseth 2012, p. 542.
  15. Mauseth 2012, p. 543.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang Cronquist 1966 129–134); $2
  17. Mauseth 2012, p. 509.
  18. Crandall-Stotler, Barbara; Stotler, Raymond E. (2000). "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". Sa A. Jonathan Shaw; Bernard Goffinet (mga pat.). Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pa. 21. ISBN 978-0-521-66097-6.
  19. Mauseth 2012, p. 535.
  20. Wyatt, T., Wosten, H., Dijksterhuis, J. (2013). "Advances in Applied Microbiology Chapter 2 - Fungal Spores for Dispersion in Space and Time". Advances in Applied Microbiology. 85: 43–91. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-407672-3.00002-2. PMID 23942148.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: mga may-akda (link)
  21. "Classifications of Fungi | Boundless Biology". courses.lumenlearning.com. Kinuha noong 2019-05-05.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Archaeal Genetics | Boundless Microbiology". courses.lumenlearning.com.
  23. Holt, Jack R.; Iudica, Carlos A. (1 October 2016). "Blastocladiomycota". Diversity of Life. Susquehanna University. Kinuha noong 29 December 2016.
  24. Holt, Jack R.; Iudica, Carlos A. (9 January 2014). "Chytridiomycota". Diversity of Life. Susquehanna University. Kinuha noong 29 December 2016.
  25. "Chytridiomycota | phylum of fungi". Encyclopedia Britannica (sa Ingles). Kinuha noong 2019-05-05.
  26. McConnaughey, M (2014). Physical Chemical Properties of Fungi. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.05231-4. ISBN 9780128012383.
  27. Taylor, Krings and Taylor, Thomas, Michael and Edith (2015). "Fossil Fungi Chapter 4 - Chytridiomycota". Fossil Fungi: 41–67. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-387731-4.00004-9.
  28. Holt, Jack R.; Iudica, Carlos A. (12 March 2013). "Microsporidia". Diversity of Life. Susquehanna University. Kinuha noong 29 December 2016.
  29. Holt, Jack R.; Iudica, Carlos A. (23 April 2013). "Neocallimastigomycota". Diversity of Life. Susquehanna University. Kinuha noong 29 December 2016.
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Types of Fungi". BiologyWise (sa Ingles). 22 May 2009. Kinuha noong 2019-05-05.
  31. Wang, Xuewei; Liu, Xingzhong; Groenewald, Johannes Z. (2017). "Phylogeny of anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota), with contributions from yak in China". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 110 (1): 87–103. doi:10.1007/s10482-016-0779-1. PMC 5222902. PMID 27734254.
  32. Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang CoLtree); $2
  33. Corliss, John O. (1984). "The Kingdom Protista and its 45 Phyla". BioSystems. 17 (2): 87–176. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(84)90003-0. PMID 6395918.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Euzéby JP, Parte AC. "Names of phyla". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Kinuha noong April 3, 2022.

Mga ugnayang panlabas[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Etimolohiya: