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Kasalukuyang Gawain:[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Salaysaying maka-agham[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Pansamantalang nakabinbin:[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Kabahagi ng sari[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Mga pangalang pangkalahatan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

(generic name) is a part of the Latinized name for an organism. It is a name which reflects the classification of the organism by grouping it with other closely similar organisms.

A generic name is a category name that is given to every species in a group of species which are closely related to one another. Ideally the same generic name is given to species which are all descended from a common ancestor.

The generic name is the first part of the two-part Latin name of an organism. To take one example, for our human species, the Latin name is Homo sapiens, (Homo means man, and sapiens means rational.) In this name, the generic name is Homo. There are no longer any other non-extinct species in the genus Homo (although it seems that several Homo species existed in the geologically recent past).

Tipo at sari[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Because of the rules of scientific naming, or "nomenclature", each genus must have a designated tipong sari (see Type (zoology)) which defines the genus; the generic name is permanently associated with the type specimen of its type species. Should this specimen turn out to be assignable to another genus, the genus name linked to it becomes a junior synonym, and the remaining taxa in the now-invalid genus need to be reassessed. See scientific classification and Nomenclature Codes for more details of this system. Also see type genus.

Kahalagan ng sari[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Mula pa noong pamumulaklak ng teorya ng ebolusyon sa pamamagitan ng mga sulatin ni Charles Darwin, hinangad nang gamitin ang sari bilang isang pangalan para sa isang lipon ng mga uri na may lubhang pagkakalapit ang kanilang pagiging magkakamag-anak, sa pagiging mga apo ng isang pangkaraniwang ninuno. Bago dumating ang panahon ang pagsusuri ng DNA analysis, ang pagpapalagay ng malip na kaugnayan sa loob ng isang grupo ng mga uri ay tila isang malawakang may-kaalamang panghuhula, na pangunahing ibinatay sa pagsusuring panlabas, at mga pag-aaral ng anatomiya ng isang nilalang.

Paggamit ng makabagong klasipikasyong pilohenetiko[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Historically-speaking, the boundaries between genera have been rather subjective (may kinikilingan), but with the advent/pagdating of phylogenetics (pagmamanahang pangkatangian ng mga sari), and because of much subsequent research, it is now increasingly common for taxonomic ranks below the class level to be restricted to confirmed monophyletic (isahang sari) groupings. Indeed, in the better-researched groups like birds and mammals, most genera represent clades already.

Neither the ICZN nor the ICBN require such criteria for establishment of a genus, and this is because they are concerned with the rules of nomenclature rather than the rules of taxonomy. The ICZN and ICBN rule books cover the formalities of what makes a description valid.

Because there is no equivalent rule book for taxonomy (classification), there is an on-going vigorous debate about what criteria to consider relevant for generic distinctness. At present, most of the classifications based on the old-fashioned idea of phenetics - overall similarity - are being gradually replaced by new ones based on cladistics. For example, the use of Reptilia and Amphibia in taxonomy is now discouraged. The formal attempt to use overall similarity or phenetics was only of major relevance for a comparatively short time around the 1960s before it turned out to be unworkable.

The three criteria given above are almost always fulfillable for a given clade. However, an example of a situation where at least one criterion is crassly violated no matter what the generic arrangement is the case of the dabbling ducks in the genus Anas. This group is is paraphyletic in regard to the extremely distinct fossil species, moa-nalo. Considering these to be distinct genera (as is usually done) violates criterion 1, including them all in the genus Anas violates criterion 2 and 3, and splitting up the genus Anas so that the mallard and the American black duck are in distinct genera violates criterion 3.

Suliranin sa pagkakatulad ng mga pangalan ng mga sari[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

A genus in one kingdom is allowed to bear a name that is in use as a genus name or other taxon name in another kingdom. Although this is discouraged by both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature there are some five thousand such names that are in use in more than one kingdom. For instance, Anura is the name of the order of frogs but also is the name of a genus of plants (although not current: it is a synonym); and Aotus is the genus of golden peas and night monkeys; Oenanthe is the genus of wheatears and water dropworts, and Prunella is the genus of accentors and self-heal.

Obviously, within the same kingdom one generic name can apply to only one genus. This explains why the platypus genus is named OrnithorhynchusGeorge Shaw named it Platypus in 1799, but the name Platypus had already been given to the pinhole borer beetle by Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst in 1793. Names with the same form but applying to different taxa are called homonyms. Since beetles and platypuses are both members of the kingdom Animalia, the name Platypus could not be used for both. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach published the replacement name Ornithorhynchus in 1800.

Susunod na takdang-gawain:[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Kalapian (biyolohiya)[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Talaan ng mga kalapian ng mga hayop[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

May magkakatulad na mga pangangatawan ang isang grupo ng mga organismo kung kaya't maiiugnay ito bilang isang pamilya.
Lapi Kahulugan Lipon Mga katangian na mapagkakakilanlan Paglalarawan ng sari
Acanthocephala Matinik na ulo Mga bulating may matinik na ulo May nailalabas-masok, masungay at mahabang dila mga 750
Acoelomorpha Walang bituka Acoels Walang bibig o lagusan ng pagkain
Annelida Maliit na singsing Mga bulating hati-hati May maramihang bilugang hati sa katawan mga 15,300 na makabago
Arthropoda Naguugpungang paa Arthropods Chitin panlabas na sangkabutuhan 1,134,000+
Brachiopoda Brasong paa Lamparang kabibe Lophophore at pedicle sa pagitan ng 300 at 500 nabubuhay
Bryozoa Mga hayop-lumot Mga hayop-lumot, banig-dagat Lophophore, no pedicle, ciliated tentacles mga 5,000 saring nabubuhay
Chaetognatha Longhair jaw Pangang may mahabang buhok Mga bulating-pana Mga Chitinous na sungay sa anumang gilid ng ulo, mga palikpik mga 100 makabagong sari
Chordata Cord Chordates Hollow dorsal nervous chord about 100,000+
Cnidaria Stinging nettle Coelenterates Nematocysts (stinging cells) about 11,000
Ctenophora Comb bearer Comb jellies Eight "comb rows" of fused cilia about 100 modern species
Cycliophora Wheel carrying Symbion Circular mouth surrounded by small cilia at least 3
Echinodermata Spiny skin Echinoderms Five-fold radial symmetry, mesodermal calcified spines about 7,000 living species and 13,000 extinct ones
Echiura Spine tail Spoon worms Set of hooks at posterior end about 140
Entoprocta Inside anus Goblet worm Anus inside ring of cilia about 150
Gastrotricha Hair stomach Meiofauna Two terminal adhesive tubes about 690
Gnathostomulida Jaw orifice Jaw worms about 100
Hemichordata Half cord Acorn worms Stomochord in collar about 100 living species
Kinorhyncha Motion snout Mud dragons Eleven segments, each with a dorsal plate about 150
Loricifera Corset bearer Brush heads Umbrella-like scales at each end about 122
Mesozoa Middle animals Mesozoans Somatoderm of ciliated cells surrounding reproductive cell(s)
Micrognathozoa Tiny jaw animals Accordion like extensible thorax 1
Mollusca Thin shell Mollusks / molluscs Muscular foot and mantle round shell 112,000[1]
Myxozoa Slime animals Polar capsules resembling nematocysts 13,000+
Nematoda Thread like Round worms Round cross section, keratin cuticle 80 000 – 1 million
Nematomorpha Thread form Horsehair worms about 320
Nemertea A sea nymph Ribbon worms about 1200
Onychophora Claw bearer Velvet worms Legs tipped by chitinous claws about 200 modern
Orthonectida Straight swim about 20
Phoronida Zeus' mistress Horseshoe worms U-shaped gut 20
Placozoa Plate animals 1
Platyhelminthes Flat worms Flat worms about 25,000[2]
Porifera Pore bearer Sponges Perforated interior wall over 5,000 modern
Priapulida Penis Priapulid worms Retractable proboscis surrounded by papillae 17
Rhombozoa Lozenge animal Single axial cell surrounded by ciliated cells 75
Rotifera Wheel bearer Rotifers Anterior crown of cilia about 2000
Sipuncula Small tube Peanut worms Mouth surrounded by invertible tentacles 144–320
Tardigrada Slow step Water bears Four segmented body and head 1,000+
Xenoturbellida Strange flatworm Ciliated deuterostome 2
KABUUAN 2,000,000-

Mga grupo na dating nakahanay sa mga lapi[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Pangalan ng sari Karaniwang pangalan Mga pangkasalukuyang pananaw na napagkasunduan
Craniata Subgroup of phylum Chordata; perhaps synonymous with Vertebrata.
Cephalochordata Lancelets Subphylum of phylum Chordata
Cephalorhyncha Superphylum Scalidophora.
Enterepneusta Acorn worms Class of phylum Hemichordata.
Pentastomida Tongue worms Subclass of Maxillopoda of phylum Arthropoda.
Pogonophora Beard worms Part of family Siboglinidae of phylum Annelida.
Pterobranchia Class of phylum Hemichordata.
Symplasma Glass sponges Class Hexactinellida of phylum Porifera.
Urochordata Tunicates Subphylum of phylum Chordata.
Vestimentifera Vent worms Part of family Siboglinidae of phylum Annelida.

Talaan ng mga kahatian ng mga halaman[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Hati Kahulugan Karaniwang pangalan Mga katangian na mapagkakakilanlan
Anthocerotophyta Flower-horn plants Hornworts Horn-shaped sporophytes, no vascular system
Bryophyta Moss plants Mosses Persistent unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system
Marchantiophyta Marchantia plants Liverworts Ephemeral unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system
Lycopodiophyta Wolf foot plants Clubmosses & Spikemosses Microphyll leaves, vascular system
Pteridophyta Fern plants Ferns & Horsetails Prothallus gametophytes, vascular system
Pteridospermatophyta Fern with seeds plant Seed ferns Only known from fossils, mostly Devonian, ranking in dispute[3]
Pinophyta Sap/pitch plants Conifers Cones containing seeds
Cycadophyta Palm plants Cycads Seeds, crown of compound leaves
Ginkgophyta Ginkgo plants Ginkgo, Maidenhair Seeds not protected by fruit (single species)
Gnetophyta Gnetophytes Seeds and woody vascular system
Anthophyta Flower plant Flowering plants Producing flowers and fruit (or close relatives)

Talaan ng mga kahatian ng mga punggus[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Sari Kahulugan Karaniwang pangalan Mga katangian na mapagkakakilanlan
Chytridiomycota Little pot mushroom Chytrids Cellulose in cell walls, flagellated gametes
Deuteromycota Second mushroom Imperfect fungi Only reproduce asexually
Zygomycota Yoke mushroom Zygomycetes Blend gametangia to form a zygosporangium
Glomeromycota Ball mushroom None Form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants
Ascomycota Bag/Wineskin Mushroom Sac fungi Produce spores in an 'ascus'
Basidiomycota Basidium Mushroom None Produce spores from a 'basidium'

Mga balak gawin:[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. Feldkamp, S. (2002) Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, USA. (pp. 725)
  2. Species Register. "Flatworms – Phylum Platyhelminthes". Marine Discovery Centres. Nakuha noong 2007-04-09.
  3. "Kingdon Plantae Tree of Life"