Digmaang Vietnam

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Digmaang Vietnam
(Chiến tranh Việt Nam)
Bahagi ng Pangalawang Digmaang Indotsino at Digmaang Malamig
VNWarMontage.png
paikot sa kanan, mula sa tuktok kaliwa:: U.S. combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tet Nakakasakit, two Douglas A-4C Skyhawks en route for airstrikes against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, Mga mamayamang tinatakbuhan ang 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, Ang paglibing sa tatlong daang biktima ng Huế Massacre.
Petsa 1 November 1955[A 1] – 30 Abril 1975 (1975-04-30)
(19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks at 1 day)
Lokasyon Timog Vietnam, Hilagang Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
Bunga Pagwawagi ng Hilagang Vietnam
  • Pag-urong ng pwersang Amerikano sa Indotsino
  • Sinakop ng Hilagang Vietnam ang Timog Vietnam
Pagbabago sa
teritoryo
Pagkakaisa ng Hilagang Vietnam at Timog Vietnam upang maging Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Magkatunggali
Anti-communist forces:

 South Vietnam
Estados Unidos Estados Unidos
 Timog Korea
 Thailand
 Australya
 New Zealand
 Khmer Republic
 Laos
Pilipinas Pilipinas

Suportado ng:
 Republic of China[5]
Canada Canada[5]
 West Germany[5]
 United Kingdom[5]
Iran Iran[5]
Espanya Espanya[5]
 Malaysia[6][7]

Communist forces:

 North Vietnam
 Tsina
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Viet Cong
Cambodia Khmer Rouge
Laos Pathet Lao

Suportado ng:
 Unyong Sobyet
 Hilagang Korea
 Cuba[8][9]
 Czechoslovakia[10][11]
Bulgaria Bulgaria[12]
 East Germany[13]
Romania Romanya

Pinuno
South Vietnam Ngô Đình Diệm
South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
South Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
South Vietnam Cao Văn Viên
South Vietnam Ngô Quang Trưởng
Estados Unidos John F. Kennedy
Estados Unidos Lyndon B. Johnson
Estados Unidos Richard Nixon
Estados Unidos Robert McNamara
Estados Unidos William Westmoreland
Estados Unidos Creighton Abrams
Estados Unidos Frederick C. Weyand
Timog Korea Park Chung-hee
Thailand Thanom Kittikachorn
Australia Robert Menzies
Australia Harold Holt
Australia John McEwen
Australia John Gorton
Australia William McMahon
Pilipinas Ferdinand Marcos
New Zealand Keith Holyoake
New Zealand Jack Marshall
New Zealand Norman Kirk
and others
North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnam Lê Duẩn
North Vietnam Võ Nguyên Giáp
North Vietnam Văn Tiến Dũng
North Vietnam Lê Trọng Tấn
North Vietnam Phạm Văn Đồng
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Hoàng Văn Thái
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Trần Văn Trà
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Linh
Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
and others
Lakas at Bilang
≈1,830,000 (1968)

 South Vietnam: 850,000 (1968)
1,500,000 (1974–75)[14]
 United States: 536,100 (1968)
Free World Military Forces:[15][16]

  •  South Korea: 50,003
  •  Thailand: 11,586
  •  Australia: 7,672
  •  Philippines: 2,061
  •  New Zealand: 552[17]
  • Espanya Spain 30
≈461,000

 North Vietnam: 287,465 (January 1968)[18]
 China: 170,000 (in 1965–69)[19][20]
[21]
 Soviet Union: 3,000
 North Korea: 300–600

Namatay at Nasugatan
 South Vietnam
195,000–430,000 civilian dead[22] [23][24]
220,357[25]–313,000 military dead[26]
1,170,000 wounded[27]

 United States
58,307 dead;[28] 303,644 wounded[A 2]
 South Korea
5,099 dead; 10,962 wounded; 4 missing
 Australia
500 dead; 3,129 wounded
[33]
 Thailand
351 dead; 1,358 wounded[34]
 New Zealand
37 dead; 187 wounded
[35]
 Philippines
9 dead;[36] 64 wounded[37]

Total dead: 479,660–807,303
Total wounded: ≈1,490,000+[27]

Padron:Country data Republic of South Vietnam North Vietnam & Viet Cong
65,000[23] civilian dead
444,000[23]–1,100,000 military dead or missing[38]
600,000+ wounded[39]

 China
≈1,100 dead and 4,200 wounded[21]
 Soviet Union
16 dead[40]
 North Korea
14 dead[41]

Total dead: 455,476–1,170,476
Total wounded: ≈608,200

Vietnamese civilian dead: 627,000–2,000,000[23][42][43]

Cambodian Civil War dead: 200,000–300,000*[44][45][46]
Laotian Civil War dead: 20,000–200,000*
Total civilian dead: 847,000–2,500,000**
Total dead: 1,484,000–3,886,026 Aircraft losses
* indicates approximations, see Casualties below
For more information see Vietnam War casualties
** This figure includes all of the dead from the Laotian and Cambodian civil wars.

Ang Digmaang Biyetnam(Biyetnames: Chiến tranh Việt Nam) , kilala din sa tawag Pangalawang Digmaang Indotsino, at sa Biyetnam bilang Digmaang Amerikano, ay isang laban mula sa Vietnam, Laos, at Cambodia. Nagsimula noong st ng Nobyembre 1955[A 1] hanggang sa fall of Saigon noong 30th Abril 1975.[9] Ito ang ikalawang laban sa Indochina Wars at opisyal na ipinaglaban sa North Vietnam and South Vietnam. Ang North Vietnam ay supportado ng Soviet Union, China,[13] at iba pang communist na bansa; Timog Vietnam ay supportado ng United States, South Korea, Ang Philippines, Australia, Thailand, at iba pang anti-communist allies.[58][59] Ang laban, isinasaalang-alang sa Cold War-era proxy war mula sa mga ,[60] tumagal ngg halos 20 taon, kasama sa direkta ng U.S. pagtatapos ng pakikilahok noong 1973, kasama ang Laotian Civil War at ang Cambodian Civil War, at natapos kasama ng tatlong mga bansa ay magiging kommunist states sa 1975. Ang laban ay Lumitaw sa First Indochina War mula sa kolonyal Government ng Pransya at ang left-wing revolutionary movement, ang Viet Minh.[61][A 5] Pagkatapos ng pag-withdraw ng hukbo ng pransya sa Indo Tsina noong 1954, ang Estados Unidos ipinagpalagay ng pinansyal at militar na suporta para sa timog Vietnamese state. Ang Việt Cộng, kilalarin sa tinatawag na Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam o NLF (Ang National Liberation Front), ang timog Vietnamese common front mula sa direksyon ng North Vietnam, nagpasimula ng guerrilla war sa timog. Hilagang Vietnam ay i ninvade ang bansang Laos noong Gitnang-1950s mula sa suporta ng mga insurgents, pagbuo ng Ho Chi Minh Trail para ma-supply at palakasin ang Việt Cộng.[62]: 16  Ang pagsali ng Estados Unidos ay nadagdagan dahil kay President John F. Kennedy sa pamamagitan ng MAAG program, mula sa di dadagdag ng isang libong ng libong militar advisors sa 1959 hanggang 23,000 sa 1964.[63][32]: 131  sa 1963, Ang Hilagang Vietnamese ay nag-mobilize ng 40,000 soldiers para lumaban sa Timog Vietnam.[62]: 16  Ang pag-ganap ng Gulf of Tonkin incident noong Agosto 1964, ang isang U.S. destroyer ay pinaghahalahan na bumangga sa isang North Vietnamese fast attack craft. Tungo ng Kongreso ng Estados Unidos ay pinasa ang Gulf of Tonkin Resolution at binigyan si Lyndon B. Johnson ng broad authority para dumami ang presensya ng mga Amerikanong sundalo sa Vietnam. si Johnson nag utos ng deployment ng mga combat units pinalakas nila ang lebel na abot sa 184,000.[63] The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) (kilala rin bilang North Vietnamese Army o NVA) lumaban ng tinatawag na taktik conventional warfare sa U.S. at South Vietnamese forces. Kahit onti lang ang na-proseso, ang United States nagpatuloy ng paggawa ng lakas puwersa. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, isa sa mga principal architects ng laban, nagsimulang mag duda sa panalo nila sa laban kapag nag 1966 na.[32]: 287  ang Estados Unidos at timog Vietnam na hukbo umasa sa air superiority at ang napakalaking firepower para patakbuhin ang search and destroy operations, kasama ang ground forces, artillery, at airstrikes. Ang Estados Unidos ay nag-palaunch ng large-scale strategic bombing campaign laban sa Hilagang Vietnam at Laos. Ang Hilagang Vietnam ay nabigyan ng tulong ng sa Tsina and the Unyong Sobyet.[32]: 371–4 [64] Kasama ang VC at PAVN mounting large-scale offensives isa Tet Offensive noong 1968,Ang Suportang Pang Domestika sa Estados Unidos para sa laban nagsimulang mawala. Ang Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) ay lumaki ang kanilang Kababayan pagkatapos Tet at na-model Pagkatapos ng U.S. doctrine. Ang VC napanatili ang malaking pagkawala ng hukbo sa laban ng Tet Offensive at subsequent U.S.-ARVN operations noong 1968, Mawawalan ng halos 50,000 na hukbong tao.[32]: 481  Ang proyekto ng CIA na Phoenix Program ay binababa ang membership at kapabilitad ng VC. Sa pagtapos ng taon, ang VC insurgents halos walang naprotektahang teritoryo sa Timog Vietnam, at ang kanilang recruitment ay bumaba ng by 80% noong 1969, malaking pagbawas ng guerrilla operations, nangangailangan ng PAVN regular soldiers galing sa Hilag.[65] noong 1969, North Vietnam dineclerang Provisional Revolutionary Government sa South Vietnam, pero ang southern guerrillas ay sidelined tulad ng PAVN forces, nagsimulang gumawa ng conventional combined arms warfare. Sa 1970, nasa 70% na communist troops nasa south ay northerners, at southern-dominated VC units di na ginagamit.[66] Operations crossed national borders: Hilagang Vietnam Ginamit ang Laos bilang supply route early sa laban habang ang Cambodia ay pati rin nagsimula noong 1967; ang routa papuntang Cambodia nagsimulang nabombahan ng Estados Unidos noong 1969, pati rin ang laos noong 1964. Ang monarch na si Norodom Sihanouk galing sa Cambodian National Assembly ay naresulat ang PAVN invasion ng bansa at request sa Khmer Rouge, escalating ang Cambodian Civil War at resulta ng U.S.-ARVN counter-invasion. Noong 1969 Eleksyon ng U.S. President Richard Nixon, polisiyang "Vietnamization" ay nagsimula, kasama ang U.S. forces sidelined at increasingly demoralized sa domestic opposition at pagbabawas ng recruitment. U.S. ground forces ay nag withdraw noong 1972 at suporta ay limitado para sa air support, artillery support, advisers, at materiel shipments. Ang ARVN, buttressed by said U.S. support, stopped the first and largest mechanized PAVN offensive during the Easter Offensive ng 1972. Ang resulta ng heavy casualties sa magkabilang dulo. pero ang ARVN nabigo para makuha lahat ng teritoryo. Ang Paris Peace Accords ng January 1973 nakita lahat ng U.S. forces nag withdraw, ang Case–Church Amendment, pasado ng U.S. Congress noong 15 August 1973, opisyal na tapusin direkta sa pagsali ng U.S. sa laban.[67]: 457  Ang Peace Accords ay nasira ng maaga, at nagpatuloy hanggang 2 pang taon. Phnom Penh ay bumagsak noong 17 April 1975 habang ang 1975 Spring Offensive nakita ang pagkuha ng saigon ng PAVN noong 30 April; ang hilaga at timog Vietnam ay napagsama Ang laki ng laban. Noong 1970, ang ARVN ay ang pang apat na pinakamalaki na hukbo sa mund, and the PAVN was not far behind with approximately one million regular soldiers.[68][16]: 770  enormous human cost: tinatayang Vietnamese soldiers at civilians ay namatay 966,000[26] hanggang 3 million.[53] 275,000–310,000 Cambodians,[54][55][56] 20,000–62,000 Laotians,[53] at 58,220 U.S. service members ay patay din sa laban, at 1,626 pang missing in action.[A 4] Ang Sino-Soviet split ay pinagsama kasama ang lull habang nagaganap ang Vietnam War. Ang tensyon sa Hilagang Vietnam at ang kanilang Cambodian allies sa Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, at ang bagong Democratic Kampuchea nagsimula agad sa mga border raids mula sa Khmer Rouge, sa huli ay magaganap ang Cambodian–Vietnamese War. Ang Chinese soldiers biglang ininvade ang Vietnam sa Sino-Vietnamese War, kasama ang subsequent border conflicts tumagal hanggang 1991. Ang unified Vietnam fought insurgencies lahat ng 3 bansa. Ang wakas ng laban at resumption ng Third Indochina War ay mukhang namuo ang Vietnamese boat people at mas malaking Indochina refugee crisis, nakita ng hanggang milyong refugees lumabas sa Indochina (mostly sa katimugang Vietnam), 250,000 tinatayang ang mga tao ay pinaalis sa dagat. Dahil sa Estados Unidos, ang laban ay nagpasimula ng tinatawag na Vietnam Syndrome, ang publiko pag ayaw ng Amerikanong overseer military involvements,[69] kasama ang Watergate scandal noong 1970s.[70]

Annotations[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. Due to the early presence of American troops in Vietnam the start date of the Vietnam War is a matter of debate. In 1998, after a high level review by the Department of Defense (DoD) and through the efforts of Richard B. Fitzgibbon's family the start date of the Vietnam War according to the US government was officially changed to 1 November 1955.[1] U.S. government reports currently cite 1 November 1955 as the commencement date of the "Vietnam Conflict", because this date marked when the U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Indochina (deployed to Southeast Asia under President Truman) was reorganized into country-specific units and MAAG Vietnam was established.[2] Other start dates include when Hanoi authorized Viet Cong forces in South Vietnam to begin a low-level insurgency in December 1956,[3] whereas some view 26 September 1959 when the first battle occurred between the Viet Cong and the South Vietnamese army, as the start date.[4]
  2. The figures of 58,220 and 303,644 for U.S. deaths and wounded come from the Department of Defense Statistical Information Analysis Division (SIAD), Defense Manpower Data Center, as well as from a Department of Veterans fact sheet dated May 2010[29] the CRS (Congressional Research Service) Report for Congress, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, dated 26 February 2010,[30] and the book Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant.[31] Some other sources give different figures (e.g. the 2005/2006 documentary Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 cited elsewhere in this article gives a figure of 58,159 U.S. deaths,[25] and the 2007 book Vietnam Sons gives a figure of 58,226)[32]

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. DoD 1998
  2. Lawrence 2009, p. 20.
  3. Olson & Roberts 1991, p. 67.Padron:Cnf
  4. Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–346; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 "ALLIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM". Kinuha noong 24 September 2011.
  6. "Chapter Three: 1957-1969 Early Relations between Malaysia and Vietnam" (PDF). University of Malaya Student Repository. pa. 72. Kinuha noong 17 October 2015.
  7. "Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (Profiles of Malaysia's Foreign Ministers)" (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Malaysia). 2008. pa. 31. ISBN 978-983-2220-26-8. Tinago mula orihinal (PDF) hanggang 16 October 2015. Kinuha noong 17 October 2015. The Tunku had been personally responsible for Malaya's partisan support of the South Vietnamese regime in its fight against the Vietcong and, in reply to a Parliamentary question on 6 February 1962, he had listed all the used weapons and equipment of the Royal Malaya Police given to Saigon. These included a total of 45,707 single-barrel shotguns, 611 armoured cars and smaller numbers of carbines and pistols. Writing in 1975, he revealed that "we had clandestinely been giving 'aid' to Vietnam since early 1958. Published American archival sources now reveal that the actual Malaysian contributions to the war effort in Vietnam included the following: "over 5,000 Vietnamese officers trained in Malaysia; training of 150 U.S. soldiers in handling Tracker Dogs; a rather impressive list of military equipment and weapons given to Viet-Nam after the end of the Malaysian insurgency (for example, 641 armored personnel carriers, 56,000 shotguns); and a creditable amount of civil assistance (transportation equipment, cholera vaccine, and flood relief)". It is undeniable that the Government's policy of supporting the South Vietnamese regime with arms, equipment and training was regarded by some quarters, especially the Opposition parties, as a form of interfering in the internal affairs of that country and the Tunku's valiant efforts to defend it were not convincing enough, from a purely foreign policy standpoint. {{cite web}}: Binalewala ang unknown parameter |deadurl= (mungkahi |url-status=) (help); line feed character sa |quote= sa posisyon 964 (help)
  8. The Cuban Military Under Castro, 1989. Page 76
  9. Cuba in the World, 1979. Page 66
  10. "Cesky a slovensky svet". Svet.czsk.net. Kinuha noong 24 February 2014.
  11. "Bilaterální vztahy České republiky a Vietnamské socialistické republiky | Mezinárodní vztahy | e-Polis – Internetový politologický časopis". E-polis.cz. Kinuha noong 24 February 2014.
  12. "Foreign Affairs in the 1960s and 1970s". Library of Congress. 1992. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Bulgaria gave official military support to many national liberation causes, most notably in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, (North Vietnam)…
  13. "Project MUSE - Sailing in the Shadow of the Vietnam War: The GDR Government and the "Vietnam Bonus" of the Early 1970s" (PDF).
  14. Le Gro, p. 28.
  15. "Vietnam War : US Troop Strength". Historycentral.com. Kinuha noong 17 October 2009.
  16. "Facts about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection". nps.gov. (citing The first American ground combat troops landed in South Vietnam during March 1965, specifically the U.S. Third Marine Regiment, Third Marine Division, deployed to Vietnam from Okinawa to defend the Da Nang, Vietnam, airfield. During the height of U.S. military involvement, 31 December 1968, the breakdown of allied forces were as follows: 536,100 U.S. military personnel, with 30,610 U.S. military having been killed to date; 65,000 Free World Forces personnel; 820,000 South Vietnam Armed Forces (SVNAF) with 88,343 having been killed to date. At the war's end, there were approximately 2,200 U.S. missing in action (MIA) and prisoners of war (POW). Source: Harry G. Summers Jr. Vietnam War Almanac, Facts on File Publishing, 1985.)
  17. The A to Z of the Vietnam War. The Scarecrow Press. 2005.
  18. Vietnam War After Action Reports, BACM Research, 2009, page 430
  19. "China admits 320,000 troops fought in Vietnam". Toledo Blade. Reuters. 16 May 1989. Kinuha noong 24 December 2013.
  20. Roy, Denny (1998). China's Foreign Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. pa. 27. ISBN 978-0847690138.
  21. 21.0 21.1 China and Vietnam.
  22. Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Lewy 1978, pp. 450–3.
  24. Thayer 1985, chap. 12.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director) (2005 & 2006). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software) (Documentary). Koch Vision. kaganapan 321 minutes. ISBN 1-4172-2920-9. {{cite AV media}}: Kailangan ng |format= ang |url= (help); Pakitingnan ang mga petsa sa: |date= (help)
  26. Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations" (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System {{citation}}: Kawing panlabas sa |work= (help)
  27. 27.0 27.1 Tucker, Spencer E. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-961-1
  28. "Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund - News". Tinago mula orihinal hanggang 2016-04-10. Kinuha noong 2016-04-09.
  29. America's Wars (PDF) (Ulat). Department of Veterans Affairs. May 2010. Tinago mula orihinal (PDF) hanggang 2014-01-24. Kinuha noong 2016-04-09.
  30. Anne Leland; Mari–Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu (26 February 2010). American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics (PDF) (Ulat). Congressional Research Service.
  31. Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
  32. Kueter, Dale. Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended. AuthorHouse (21 March 2007). ISBN 978-1425969318
  33. "Australian casualties in the Vietnam War, 1962–72 | Australian War Memorial". Awm.gov.au. Tinago mula orihinal hanggang 16 Mayo 2013. Kinuha noong 29 June 2013.
  34. The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History By Spencer C. Tucker "https://books.google.com/?id=qh5lffww-KsC"
  35. "Overview of the war in Vietnam | VietnamWar.govt.nz, New Zealand and the Vietnam War". Vietnamwar.govt.nz. 16 July 1965. Tinago mula orihinal hanggang 26 Hulyo 2013. Kinuha noong 29 June 2013.
  36. "Chapter III: The Philippines". History.army.mil. Tinago mula orihinal hanggang 2 Agosto 2016. Kinuha noong 24 February 2014.
  37. "Asian Allies in Vietnam" (PDF). Embassy of South Vietnam. March 1970. Kinuha noong 18 October 2015.
  38. Associated Press, 3 April 1995, "Vietnam Says 1.1 Million Died Fighting For North."
  39. Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
  40. Dunnigan, James & Nofi, Albert: Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. St. Martin's Press, 2000, p. 284. ISBN 0-312-25282-X.
  41. "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News. 31 March 2000. Kinuha noong 18 October 2015.
  42. Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Kinuha noong 24 February 2011. The Vietnamese government officially claimed a rough estimate of 2 million civilian deaths, but it did not divide these deaths between those of North and South Vietnam.
  43. "fifty years of violent war deaths: data analysis from the world health survey program: BMJ". 23 April 2008. Kinuha noong 5 January 2013. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths … 3.8 million in Vietnam
  44. Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  45. Sliwinski 1995.
  46. Banister, Judith, and Paige Johnson (1993). "After the Nightmare: The Population of Cambodia." In Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the International Community, ed. Ben Kiernan. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.


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