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Toreng Eiffel[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Hugis ng tore[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering. Eiffel and his engineers, as renowned bridge builders however, understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:

The shape of the tower was therefore determined by mathematical calculation involving wind resistance. Several theories of this mathematical calculation have been proposed over the years, the most recent is a nonlinear integral differential equation based on counterbalancing the wind pressure on any point on the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point. That shape is exponential.[2][3]

The mass of the tower is inferior to the mass of air contained in a cylinder at the tower's dimensions : 10 100 tons vs 10 265 tons.

The 10 100 tons radiate on 4 pillars so that the weight per square centimeters on the ground would be that of a 2m tall lady weighting 80kg on a pair of high heels.

Instalasyon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, an occasionally modified set of antenna wires ran from the summit to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They were connected to long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar and still exists today. On November 20, 1913 the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia.

The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, DC.[4]

The tower has two restaurants: Altitude 95, on the first floor (95 m, 311 ft, above sea level); and the Jules Verne, an expensive gastronomical restaurant on the second floor, with a private lift. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007 a new multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse was brought in to run Jules Verne.[5]

The uppermost observation deck, with a height of 275 metres, is the highest area of an architectural structure in the European Union open for the public.

The passenger lifts from ground level to the first level are operated by cables and pullies driven by massive water-powered pistons. As they ascend the inclined arc of the legs, the elevator cabins tilt slightly, but with a slight jolt, every few seconds in order to keep the floor nearly level. The elevator works are on display and open to the public in a small museum located in one of the four tower bases, and waiting queues are much shorter than those for the tower ascent.

Mga kaganapan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Tinamaan ng kidlat ang Toreng Eiffel noong Hunyo 3, 1902, 9:20 ng gabi
Nagsilbing pook pampatalastas ng kumpanyang Citroën ang Toreng Eiffel mula 1925 hanggang 1934.
  • In 1902, the tower was struck by lightning (tingnan ang larawan sa kanan). Tinamaan ng kidlat ang Toreng Eiffel noong Hunyo 3, 1902, 9:20 ng gabi. 100 m (330 ft) of the top had to be reconstructed and the damaged lights illuminating the tower had to be replaced.[6]
  • Father Theodor Wulf in 1910 took observations of radiant energy radiating at the top and bottom of the tower, discovering at the top more than was expected, and thereby detecting what are today known as cosmic rays.[7]
  • On February 4 1912 an Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt jumped from a height of 60 metres from the first deck of Eiffel tower using his home-made parachute. Reichelt fell to his death.
  • In 1925, the con artist Victor Lustig twice "sold" the tower for scrap metal.
  • In 1930, the tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City.
  • From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's four sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.
  • Upon the Nazi occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps to the summit. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 Nazi soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and it was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. A Frenchman scaled the tower during the German occupation to hang the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. The lifts of the Tower were working normally within hours of the Liberation of Paris.
  • On January 3, 1956, a fire damaged the top of the tower.
  • In 1957 the present radio antenna was added to the top.
  • In the 1980s an old restaurant and its supporting iron scaffolding midway up the tower was dismantled; it was purchased and reconstructed on St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans, Louisiana by entrepreneurs John Onorio and Daniel Bonnot, originally as the Tour Eiffel Restaurant, known more recently as the Red Room. The restaurant was re-assembled from 11,000 pieces that crossed the Atlantic in a 40-foot cargo container.
  • In 1985's James Bond action/adventure film A View to a Kill, Sir Roger Moore as James Bond chases May Day played by actress Grace Jones at the Eiffel Tower. She parachuted from the tower. The video of the film's theme, performed by the group Duran Duran, also included several scenes of the band staged on the tower.
  • On July 14 1995, Bastille Day, French synthesiser musician Jean Michel Jarre performed Concert For Tolerance at the tower in aid of UNESCO. The free concert was attended by an estimated 1.5 million people, filling the Champ Du Mars. The concert featured lighting and projection effects on the tower, and a huge firework display throughout. Exactly 3 years later, he returned to the same spot for a more dance music orientated show, Electronic Night.
  • On New Year's Eve 2000, the Eiffel Tower played host to Paris' Millennium Celebration. Fireworks exploded from the whole length of the tower in a spectacular display.
  • In 2000, flashing lights and four high-power searchlights were installed on the tower. Since then the light show has become a nightly event. The searchlights on top of the tower make it a beacon in Paris' night sky.
  • The tower received its 200,000,000th guest of all-time in 2002.[8][9]
  • At 19:20 on July 22, 2003, a fire occurred at the top of the tower in the broadcasting equipment room. The entire tower was evacuated; the fire was extinguished after 40 minutes, and there were no reports of injuries.
  • Since 2004, the Eiffel Tower has hosted an ice skating rink on the first floor during the winter period. Skating is free in Paris.

Ang 72 mga nakaukit na pangalan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986-1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower. The Tower is owned by the city of Paris.

Pagaangkin ng karapatang-ari sa mga larawan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Images of the tower have long been in the public domain; however, in 2003 SNTE (Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel) installed a new lighting display on the tower. The effect was to put any night-time image of the tower and its lighting display under copyright. As a result, it was no longer legal to publish contemporary photographs of the tower at night without permission in some countries.[10][11]

The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for SNTE, Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways we don't approve." However, it also potentially has the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night from being published[12] as well as hindering non profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the tower.

In a recent decision, the Court of Cassation ruled that copyright could not be claimed over images including a copyrighted building if the photograph encompassed a larger area. This seems to indicate that SNTE cannot claim copyright on photographs of Paris incorporating the lit tower.

In jurisdictions, this claim of copyright is explicitly disallowed. In Irish copyright law, works "permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public" may be freely included in visual reproductions.[13]

Sa kalinangang popular[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Tanawin mula sa ilalim ng Toreng Eiffel.

As a global landmark, the Eiffel Tower is featured in media including films, video games, and television shows.

Mga toreng may mga bahaging salasalabat na mas mataas kaysa Toreng Eiffel[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Pangalan Taas ng taluktok Taon Bansa Bayan Kumento
Kiev TV Tower 1263 talampakan 385 m 1973 Ukraine Kiev Pinakamataas na toreng salasalabat (lattice tower) sa buong mundo
Tashkent Tower 1230 talampakan 374.9 m 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent
Pylons of Yangtze River Crossing 1137 talampakan 346.5m 2003 Republikang Popular ng Tsina Jiangyin 2 tore, pinakamataas na mga pylons sa buong mundo
Dragon Tower 1102 talampakan 336 m 2000 Republikang Popular ng Tsina Harbin
Tokyo Tower 1091 talampakan 332.6 m 1958 Hapon Tokyo
Emley Moor transmitting station 1084 talampakan 330.4 m 1971 United Kingdom West yorkshire, Inglatera
WITI TV Tower 1078 talampakan 329 m 1962 Estados Unidos Shorewood, Wisconsin
WSB TV Tower 1075 talampakan 327.6 m 1957 Estados Unidos Atlanta, Georgia

Mga kayariang pang-arkitektura sa Pransya na mas mataas kaysa Toreng Eiffel[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Pangalan Taas ng taluktok Taon Uri ng kayarian Bayan Kumento
Longwave transmitter Allouis 350 m 1974 Guyed Mast Allouis
HWU transmitter 350 m ? Guyed Mast Rosnay Multiple masts
Viaduc de Millau 343 m 2004 Bridge Pillar Milliau
TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay 330 m ? Guyed Mast Niort
Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet 342 m 1993 Guyed Mast Mayet
Transmitter Roumoules 330 m 1974 Guyed Mast Roumoules spare transmission mast for longwave, insulated against ground
Eiffel Tower 324 m 1889 Tower Paris

Mga toreng katulad at mga ginaya[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Mga kahawig na tore (hindi mga modelong sinukat lamang)[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Mga tunay na gusali ito, na ayon ang pagkakasunud-sunod sa pagbaba ng sukat ng kataasan:

Mga reproduksyon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Mga modelo lamang ito, at ayon ang pagkakasunud-sunod sa pagbaba ng sukat ng kataasan:

  1. Extrait de la réponse d'Eiffel
  2. Cat.Inist
  3. The Virginia Engineer: Correct Theory Explaining The Eiffel Tower’s Design Revealed
  4. "Paris Time By Wireless," New York Times, November 22, 1913, pg 1.
  5. Paris France Guide: Paris Hotels, Food, Wine and Discounts - The Eiffel Tower Breaking News
  6. "Thunder and Lightning", Camille Flammarion, isinalin ni Walter Mostyn, nailimbag noong 1906.
  7. Wulf, Theodor. Physikalische Zeitschrift, naglalaman ng resulta ng apat na araw na pagmamasid ni Theodor Wulf habang nasa ibabaw ng Toreng Eiffel Tower.
  8. "The Eiffel Tower: Paris' Grande Dame". france.com. Nakuha noong 2007-07-24.
  9. "Soirée réussie le 28 novembre pour fêter l'année du 200 millionième visiteur". Official Site (sa wikang Pranses). 2002. Nakuha noong 2007-07-24.
  10. Statement that publishing pictures of the lighting requires a fee
  11. In the United States, for example, 17 USC 120(a) explicitly permits the publication of photographs of copyrighted architecture in public spaces. In Germany this is known as Panoramafreiheit.
  12. Eiffel Tower: Repossessed
  13. [http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2000/en/act/pub/0028/sec0093.html#partii-chapvi-sec93 Irish Statute Books - Representation of certain artistic works on public display
  14. http://en.structurae.de/files/photos/2328/ismaning02.jpg
  15. http://www2.odn.ne.jp/yoko—tower/list1—e.htm
  16. Disney's official French Pavilion page - lists the Eiffel Tower as approximately 1/10th the height of the original.
  17. Eiffel Tower
  18. :: Falconcity of Wonders (L.L.C) ::