Hugis ng tore[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering. Eiffel and his engineers, as renowned bridge builders however, understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:
|“||Now to what phenomenon did I give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be (...) will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.||”|
|— translated from the French newspaper Le Temps of February 14, 1887|
The shape of the tower was therefore determined by mathematical calculation involving wind resistance. Several theories of this mathematical calculation have been proposed over the years, the most recent is a nonlinear integral differential equation based on counterbalancing the wind pressure on any point on the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point. That shape is exponential.
The mass of the tower is inferior to the mass of air contained in a cylinder at the tower's dimensions : 10 100 tons vs 10 265 tons.
The 10 100 tons radiate on 4 pillars so that the weight per square centimeters on the ground would be that of a 2m tall lady weighting 80kg on a pair of high heels.
Instalasyon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, an occasionally modified set of antenna wires ran from the summit to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They were connected to long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar and still exists today. On November 20, 1913 the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia.
The tower has two restaurants: Altitude 95, on the first floor (95 m, 311 ft, above sea level); and the Jules Verne, an expensive gastronomical restaurant on the second floor, with a private lift. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007 a new multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse was brought in to run Jules Verne.
The passenger lifts from ground level to the first level are operated by cables and pullies driven by massive water-powered pistons. As they ascend the inclined arc of the legs, the elevator cabins tilt slightly, but with a slight jolt, every few seconds in order to keep the floor nearly level. The elevator works are on display and open to the public in a small museum located in one of the four tower bases, and waiting queues are much shorter than those for the tower ascent.
Mga kaganapan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
- On September 10, 1889 Thomas Edison visited the tower. He signed the guestbook with the following message—
|“||To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.||”|
- In 1902, the tower was struck by lightning (tingnan ang larawan sa kanan). Tinamaan ng kidlat ang Toreng Eiffel noong Hunyo 3, 1902, 9:20 ng gabi. 100 m (330 ft) of the top had to be reconstructed and the damaged lights illuminating the tower had to be replaced.
- Father Theodor Wulf in 1910 took observations of radiant energy radiating at the top and bottom of the tower, discovering at the top more than was expected, and thereby detecting what are today known as cosmic rays.
- On February 4 1912 an Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt jumped from a height of 60 metres from the first deck of Eiffel tower using his home-made parachute. Reichelt fell to his death.
- In 1925, the con artist Victor Lustig twice "sold" the tower for scrap metal.
- In 1930, the tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City.
- From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's four sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.
- Upon the Nazi occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps to the summit. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 Nazi soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and it was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. A Frenchman scaled the tower during the German occupation to hang the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. The lifts of the Tower were working normally within hours of the Liberation of Paris.
- On January 3, 1956, a fire damaged the top of the tower.
- In 1957 the present radio antenna was added to the top.
- In the 1980s an old restaurant and its supporting iron scaffolding midway up the tower was dismantled; it was purchased and reconstructed on St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans, Louisiana by entrepreneurs John Onorio and Daniel Bonnot, originally as the Tour Eiffel Restaurant, known more recently as the Red Room. The restaurant was re-assembled from 11,000 pieces that crossed the Atlantic in a 40-foot cargo container.
- In 1985's James Bond action/adventure film A View to a Kill, Sir Roger Moore as James Bond chases May Day played by actress Grace Jones at the Eiffel Tower. She parachuted from the tower. The video of the film's theme, performed by the group Duran Duran, also included several scenes of the band staged on the tower.
- On July 14 1995, Bastille Day, French synthesiser musician Jean Michel Jarre performed Concert For Tolerance at the tower in aid of UNESCO. The free concert was attended by an estimated 1.5 million people, filling the Champ Du Mars. The concert featured lighting and projection effects on the tower, and a huge firework display throughout. Exactly 3 years later, he returned to the same spot for a more dance music orientated show, Electronic Night.
- On New Year's Eve 2000, the Eiffel Tower played host to Paris' Millennium Celebration. Fireworks exploded from the whole length of the tower in a spectacular display.
- In 2000, flashing lights and four high-power searchlights were installed on the tower. Since then the light show has become a nightly event. The searchlights on top of the tower make it a beacon in Paris' night sky.
- The tower received its 200,000,000th guest of all-time in 2002.
- At 19:20 on July 22, 2003, a fire occurred at the top of the tower in the broadcasting equipment room. The entire tower was evacuated; the fire was extinguished after 40 minutes, and there were no reports of injuries.
- Since 2004, the Eiffel Tower has hosted an ice skating rink on the first floor during the winter period. Skating is free in Paris.
Ang 72 mga nakaukit na pangalan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986-1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower. The Tower is owned by the city of Paris.
Pagaangkin ng karapatang-ari sa mga larawan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Images of the tower have long been in the public domain; however, in 2003 SNTE (Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel) installed a new lighting display on the tower. The effect was to put any night-time image of the tower and its lighting display under copyright. As a result, it was no longer legal to publish contemporary photographs of the tower at night without permission in some countries.
The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for SNTE, Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways we don't approve." However, it also potentially has the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night from being published as well as hindering non profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the tower.
In a recent decision, the Court of Cassation ruled that copyright could not be claimed over images including a copyrighted building if the photograph encompassed a larger area. This seems to indicate that SNTE cannot claim copyright on photographs of Paris incorporating the lit tower.
In jurisdictions, this claim of copyright is explicitly disallowed. In Irish copyright law, works "permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public" may be freely included in visual reproductions.
Sa kalinangang popular[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
As a global landmark, the Eiffel Tower is featured in media including films, video games, and television shows.
Mga toreng may mga bahaging salasalabat na mas mataas kaysa Toreng Eiffel[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
|Pangalan||Taas ng taluktok||Taon||Bansa||Bayan||Kumento|
|Kiev TV Tower||1263 talampakan||385 m||1973||Ukraine||Kiev||Pinakamataas na toreng salasalabat (lattice tower) sa buong mundo|
|Tashkent Tower||1230 talampakan||374.9 m||1985||Uzbekistan||Tashkent|
|Pylons of Yangtze River Crossing||1137 talampakan||346.5m||2003||Republikang Popular ng Tsina||Jiangyin||2 tore, pinakamataas na mga pylons sa buong mundo|
|Dragon Tower||1102 talampakan||336 m||2000||Republikang Popular ng Tsina||Harbin|
|Tokyo Tower||1091 talampakan||332.6 m||1958||Hapon||Tokyo|
|Emley Moor transmitting station||1084 talampakan||330.4 m||1971||United Kingdom||West yorkshire, Inglatera|
|WITI TV Tower||1078 talampakan||329 m||1962||Estados Unidos||Shorewood, Wisconsin|
|WSB TV Tower||1075 talampakan||327.6 m||1957||Estados Unidos||Atlanta, Georgia|
Mga kayariang pang-arkitektura sa Pransya na mas mataas kaysa Toreng Eiffel[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
|Pangalan||Taas ng taluktok||Taon||Uri ng kayarian||Bayan||Kumento|
|Longwave transmitter Allouis||350 m||1974||Guyed Mast||Allouis|
|HWU transmitter||350 m||?||Guyed Mast||Rosnay||Multiple masts|
|Viaduc de Millau||343 m||2004||Bridge Pillar||Milliau|
|TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay||330 m||?||Guyed Mast||Niort|
|Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet||342 m||1993||Guyed Mast||Mayet|
|Transmitter Roumoules||330 m||1974||Guyed Mast||Roumoules||spare transmission mast for longwave, insulated against ground|
|Eiffel Tower||324 m||1889||Tower||Paris|
Mga toreng katulad at mga ginaya[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Mga kahawig na tore (hindi mga modelong sinukat lamang)[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Mga tunay na gusali ito, na ayon ang pagkakasunud-sunod sa pagbaba ng sukat ng kataasan:
- CN Tower, Toronto, Canada — At 553.33 m, the world's second tallest freestanding tower.
- Kiev TV Tower, Kiev, Ukraine — At 385 m, the world's tallest lattice tower, with no observation deck for visitors.
- Riga Radio and TV Tower, Riga, Latvia — 368.5 m concrete tower on three legs.
- Macau Tower, Macau SAR — 338 m, with observation deck at 237.62 m and with the highest bungee jump in the world at 233 m.
- Dragon Tower, Harbin — a 336 m high lattice tower at Harbin, China.
- Tokyo Tower, Tokyo, Japan — 9 m higher than the original (33 m if the TV antenna is included).
- Yerevan TV Tower, Yerevan, Armenia — 311.7 m high lattice tower built from 1974 to 1977.
- St. Petersburg TV Tower, St. Petersburg, Russia — 310 m lattice tower without observation deck.
- Star Tower, Cincinnati, Ohio — 291.4 m transmission tower, without observation deck.
- Qingdao TV Tower, China — 232 m TV tower with observation deck.
- Crystal Palace Transmitter, London, England — 222 m TV tower without observation deck, nicknamed London's Eiffel Tower[kailangan ng sanggunian].
- Brasilia TV Tower, Brasilia, Brazil — 224 m lattice tower with an observation deck at a height of 75 m.
- Guangzhou TV Tower, Guangzhou, China — A 217 m high TV tower of lattice steel.
- Blosenbergturm, Beromünster, Switzerland — A 217 m high mast radiator used for broadcasting of DRS-1 on mediumwave frequency 531 kHz.
- Nagoya TV Tower, Nagoya, Japan — 180 m
- Odinstårnet, Odense, Denmark — A 177 meter high lattice tower, destroyed in 1944
- The Spire The Arts Centre (Melbourne), Melbourne Australia — built in 1996 at a height of 163 m and is illuminated with roughly 6,600 metres (21,653 feet) of optic fibre tubing, 150 m (492 feet) of neon tubing on the mast and 14,000 incandescent lamps on the spire's skirt. The metal webbing of the spire is also influenced by the billowing of a ballerina's tutu.
- Transmitter Ismaning, Ismaning, Germany — 163 m, a wooden radio tower in shape similar to Eiffel Tower (and nicknamed "Bavarian Eiffel Tower") was built in 1934. In 1983 this tower was demolished, because it was of bad structural state.
- Blackpool Tower, Blackpool, England — 158 m (519 ft); it is not quite a free-standing structure as it stands above the Tower Circus complex, where the four "legs" can be seen.
- Mesquite Tower, Mesquite, Texas — 155.3 m transmission tower, without observation deck.
- Croydon Transmitter — A 152 m transmission tower in London, without observation deck
- Radio Tower Berlin, Berlin, Germany — 150 m transmission tower with observation deck. Sometimes nicknamed as a copy of the Eiffel Tower, although the two structures are not too similar. The Radio Tower Berlin is the only observation tower whose feet are insulated from the ground.
- Sapporo TV Tower, Sapporo, Japan — 147 m.
- Gliwice Radio Tower, Gliwice, Poland — 118 m. This tower, which is built of wood without iron parts and is today world's tallest wooden structure, was nicknamed until 1945 "Silesian Eiffel Tower" by local population.
- AWA Tower, Sydney, Australia — 101 m, 46 m on top of a 55 m building, built in 1938-39.
- Beppu Tower, Beppu, Japan — 100 m
- Zendstation Zwollerkerspel — 90 m radio tower.
- Tour métallique de Fourvière, Lyon, France — 85.7 m lattice tower built from 1892 to 1894. Used until 1953 as an observation tower, but is now a TV tower — closed to visitors.
- Torre del Reformador, Guatemala City, Guatemala — 75 m.
- Brookmans Park Transmitter — two 60.96 metre high lattice towers, insulated against ground
- Petřínská rozhledna, Prague, Czech Republic — 60 m, built in 1891.
- Bachtel Tower, Hinwil, Switzerland — 60 m, built in 1986.
- Wiesbaden Bismarck Tower, Wiesbaden, Germany — 50 m tall wooden lattice observation tower, built in 1910 and demolished in 1918.
- Watkin's Tower, Wembley Park, London, England — never completed, demolished in 1907.
- Joseph's Cross, Stollberg/Harz, Germany — 38 m observation tower in form of a double cross.
- Lemberg Tower, Lemberg Mountain, Germany — 33 m observation tower of lattice steel, built in 1899
- Gehrenberg Tower, Deggenhausertal, Germany — 30 m observation tower of lattice steel, built in 1903
- Salzgitter Bismarck Tower, Salzgitter, Germany — 17 m tall observation tower consisting of 5 metres tall stone basement and 12 metres tall lattice tower built in 1900.
- Mount Gorbea Summit Cross - a 17.2 metres tall summit cross on Mount Gorbea
- Tour du Belvédère — a small observation tower in Mulhouse, Alsace, France.
- Woodwards Building, Vancouver, Canada — A small reproduction on the roof of the building was topped by a signature neon "W". This building has been demolished, only a small section of the facade remains. It will be replaced by condos and some low-income housing.
- Hashawha Tower, Westminster, Maryland — This is a windmill that was donated to the Hashawha Bear Branch Nature Center. Standing at about 10 m (35 ft) tall, there are pegs on the side to climb up on, and there is a very small observation deck at the top.
Mga reproduksyon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Mga modelo lamang ito, at ayon ang pagkakasunud-sunod sa pagbaba ng sukat ng kataasan:
- In front of the Paris Las Vegas hotel/casino on the Las Vegas Strip, Paradise, Nevada, near Las Vegas, Nevada — 165 m (540 ft, scale 1:2).
- Tianducheng, Hangzhou, China ~108 m  
- Shenzhen, China — ~100 m (~328 ft, scale 1:3)
- Kings Island Amusement Park, Mason, Ohio — ~100 m (~328 ft, scale 1:3)
- Kings Dominion Amusement Park, Doswell, Virginia — 84 m (275 ft, scale 1:3.59)
- Slobozia, Romania — 54 m (177 ft)
- In Parizh, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Nagaybaksky District, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. Built by South Ural Cell Telephone company as a cellphone tower — 50 m (164 ft)
- Fayetteville, North Carolina — The Bordeaux Tower is about 45 m (150 ft) featuring an elevator that takes people to the top for a small view.
- Walt Disney World's Epcot theme park in Lake Buena Vista, Florida (at the France Pavilion in World Showcase) — 23 (76 ft, scale 1:10)
- Paris, Texas — 20 m (65 ft)
- As a Meccano model, housed at the Technology Museum of Georgia (Atlanta, Georgia) — 11 m (36 t)
- On the roof of the catering company Rungis Express in Meckenheim and Satteldorf, Germany -(height unknown)
- Centerpiece of the Falcon City of Wonders — a planned new development project in Dubai. UAE, featuring seven modern wonders of the world (planned). (approximate coordinates)
- Mini-Europe, Brussels, a 12.96 m model (a proportion of 1:25 to the original).
- Model on the roof of the Rue De Paris cafe in Brisbane, Australia — (roughly 12 m tall)
- Model in indoor theme park in Genting Highlands, Malaysia
- In Austin, Texas there is a 7.5 m (25 ft) tall replica at the Dreyfus Antique Shop.
- Model in Paris, Tennessee — about 7.5 m (25 ft) tall.
- Paris, Michigan; approximately 3 m (10 ft) tall and in a park
- Golden Sands (Varna) sea resort, Bulgaria - A tower in comparsion 1:10 is built in the town as a tourist attraction.
- Kazakhstan, Aktau - model at the front of the office of "Oil Construction Company"
- Extrait de la réponse d'Eiffel
- The Virginia Engineer: Correct Theory Explaining The Eiffel Tower’s Design Revealed
- "Paris Time By Wireless," New York Times, November 22, 1913, pg 1.
- Paris France Guide: Paris Hotels, Food, Wine and Discounts - The Eiffel Tower Breaking News
- "Thunder and Lightning", Camille Flammarion, isinalin ni Walter Mostyn, nailimbag noong 1906.
- Wulf, Theodor. Physikalische Zeitschrift, naglalaman ng resulta ng apat na araw na pagmamasid ni Theodor Wulf habang nasa ibabaw ng Toreng Eiffel Tower.
- "The Eiffel Tower: Paris' Grande Dame". france.com. Nakuha noong 2007-07-24.
- "Soirée réussie le 28 novembre pour fêter l'année du 200 millionième visiteur". Official Site (sa wikang Pranses). 2002. Nakuha noong 2007-07-24.
- Statement that publishing pictures of the lighting requires a fee
- In the United States, for example, 17 USC 120(a) explicitly permits the publication of photographs of copyrighted architecture in public spaces. In Germany this is known as Panoramafreiheit.
- Eiffel Tower: Repossessed
- [http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2000/en/act/pub/0028/sec0093.html#partii-chapvi-sec93 Irish Statute Books - Representation of certain artistic works on public display
- Disney's official French Pavilion page - lists the Eiffel Tower as approximately 1/10th the height of the original.
- Eiffel Tower
- :: Falconcity of Wonders (L.L.C) ::