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Mga artikulo[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Paalala: Mga alituntunin?
Kasulukuyang isinasalin[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
- Pamagat: Sinapupunan (uterus o womb); Obaryo o Bahay-itlog; at (gut)?; Hikaw at Tutuli (cerumen or earwax); Budgerigar (love birds); Kurdon ng utak na panggulugod; Bahay-bata o Bahay-sanggol (placenta)
- Pamagat: Mikroskopyo
Mga uri[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Mga mikroskopyong optiko[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Optical microscopes, through their use of visible wavelengths of light, are the simplest and hence most widely used type of microscope. Recent research has shown (see Brian J. Ford's research on simple microscopes) that even simple microscopes, those with a single small lens, gave amazingly clear images to the earliest microscopists. Today compound microscopes, i.e., especially those with a series of lenses, serve uses in many fields of science, particularly biology and geology.
Optical microscopes use refractive lenses, typically of glass and occasionally of plastic, to focus light into the eye or another light detector. Typical magnification of a light microscope is up to 1500x with a theoretical resolution of around 0.2 micrometres. Specialised techniques (e.g., scanning confocal microscopy) may exceed this magnification but the resolution is an insurmountable diffraction limit.
Various wavelengths of light are sometimes used for special purposes, for example, in the study of biological tissue. Ultraviolet light is used to illuminate the object being viewed in order to excite a fluorescent dye which then emits visible light. Infrared light is used to study thick slices of biological tissue because infrared light's low diffraction coefficient permits viewing deeper into tissue.
Other microscopes which use electromagnetic wavelengths not visible to the human eye are often called optical microscopes. The most common of these, due to its high resolution yet no requirement for a vacuum like electron microscopes, is the x-ray microscope.
Electron microscopes[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Electron microscopes, which use beams of electrons instead of light, are designed for very high magnification usage. Electrons, which have a much smaller wavelength than visible light, allow a much higher resolution. The main limitation of the electron beam is that it must pass through a vacuum as air molecules would otherwise scatter the beam.
Instead of relying on refraction, lenses for electron microscopes are specially designed electromagnets which generate magnetic fields that are approximately parallel to the direction that electrons travel. The electrons are typically detected by a phosphor screen, photographic film or a charged-coupled device (CCD).
Two major variants of electron microscopes exist:
- Scanning electron microscope: looks at the surface of bulk objects by scanning the surface with a fine electron beam and measuring reflection. May also be used for spectroscopy.
- Transmission electron microscope: passes electrons completely through the sample, analogous to basic optical microscopy. This requires careful sample preparation, since electrons are scattered so strongly by most materials. It can also obtain detailed information on the sample's crystallography through selected area diffraction
Scanning probe microscope[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
In scanning probe microscopy (SPM), a physical probe is used either in close contact to the sample or nearly touching it. By rastering (pag-ukit sa pamamagitan ng mga tuldok) the probe across the sample, and by measuring the interactions between the sharp tip of the probe and the sample, a micrograph is generated. The exact nature of the interactions between the probe and the sample determines exactly what kind of SPM is being used. Because this kind of microscopy relies on the interactions between the tip and the sample, it generally only measures information about the surface of the sample.
Point-projection microscopes[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
The field emission microscope, field ion microscope, and the Atom Probe (paniktik-atomo) are examples of point-projection microscopes (turo-tuldok-tulis-pook-panukala) where ions are excited from a needle-shaped specimen and hit a detector paniktik/tagasagip/panagip. The Atom-Probe Tomograph (APT) is the most modern incarnation and allows a three-dimensional atom-by-atom (with chemical elements identified) reconstruction with sub-nanometer resolution.
Susunod na isasalin[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Isa pang isasalin[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
- tubo na sarado ang dulo
Dagdag na isasalin[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Pamagat: lamad (membrane) at singit (loin o lomo) at groins at langib at litid (tendon or nerve or ligament also) at ligat at pata at kuntil tinggil; plema/tract = pitak; hita at binti; alakalakan (back of knee AND calf of leg)
Mga suleras (template)[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Para sa Alam Ba Ninyo?[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Para sa Alam Ba Ninyo? rin[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
Listahan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]
- sentral ng sistemang Nerbiyos
- immune system
- sistemang panlinis, excretory system
- bahagdan = porsiyento
- pata, leg of animal
- hita, pigi thigh
- binti o calf bone/calf ??pata??
- sitaw, bataw, patani
- paminggalan, cupboard
- puson, abdomen/belly; stomach too (sikmura)
- alloy, lahok
- Sugpungan ng daliri at kamao (knuckles)
- baga (kimika) o agipo o dupong, ember, glowing or live coal; alipato, flying ember
- baga (anatomiya)
- baga (balarila), ginagamit sa pagtatanong
- bibig, nguso, bunganga, ngalangala (panloob na bubong o silong ng bibig/palate)
- bisig, braso
- lalamunan, throat
- balbas, bigote
- mansanas ni Adan
- tinggil, kuntil
- batalan, banyo
- tumbong (rektum)
- binti at hita
- sikmura (stomach)
- ihi (urine)
- tae (stool, dung, feces, fecal matter)
- libog, laswa, halay, bastos
- supot, bulsikot, pouch
- prepusyo (foreskin)
- suklob o lambong (hood)
- hibla, filament
- tubo o sugarcane
- usbong, bud
- panuto, direction
- palit-panuto, redirect, redireksyon
- takong, heel (sapatos)