Japan Airlines

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Japan Airlines
IATA
JL
ICAO
JAL
Callsign
JAPANAIR
Itinatag1 Agosto 1951
Mga pusod
AlyansaOneWorld
Mga sukursal
  • Japan Air Comutter
  • Ryukyu Air Comutter
  • J-Air
  • Japan Transocean Airlines
Laki ng plota162
Mga destinasyon92
HimpilanShinagawa, Tokyo, Japan

Japan Airlines Co., Ltd.' (JAL) (日本 航空 株式会社 Nihon Kōkū Kabushiki-gaisha, TYO: 9201, OTC Pink: JAPSY), na kilala rin bilang Nikkō (日 航), ay ang carrier ng bandila ng Japan. Ito ay headquartered sa Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan; at ang mga pangunahing hubs nito ay Narita International Airport ng Tokyo at Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport), pati na rin ang Osaka's Kansai International Airport at Osaka International Airport. Kabilang sa mga kompanya ng JAL ang Japan Airlines, J-Air, JAL Express, Japan Air Commuter, Japan Transocean Air, at Ryukyu Air Commuter para sa domestic feeder services; at JAL Cargo para sa mga serbisyo ng karga at koreo. Ang mga operasyon ng JAL group ay may naka-iskedyul at hindi naka-iskedyul na internasyonal at lokal na pasahero at mga serbisyo ng kargamento sa 220 destinasyon sa 35 bansa sa buong mundo, kabilang ang mga codeshares. Ang grupo ay may isang fleet ng 279 sasakyang panghimpapawid. Sa taon ng pananalapi na natapos noong Marso 31, 2009, ang grupo ng airline ay nagdala ng higit sa 52 milyong pasahero at higit sa 1.1 milyong tonelada ng karga at koreo. Japan Airlines, J-Air, JAL Express, at Japan Transocean Air ay miyembro ng Oneworld airline alyansa network.

Destinasyon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Hub
Future
Seasonal
Terminated Destination
Bansa Lalawigan Probinsya/Region IATA ICAO Airport Refs
Australia Brisbane Queensland BNE YBBN Brisbane Airport [1]
Australia Cairns Queensland CNS YBCS Cairns Airport [2]
Australia Melbourne Victoria MEL YMML Melbourne Airport [3]
Australia Perth Western Australia PER YPPH Perth Airport [4]
Australia Sydney New South Wales SYD YSSY Sydney Airport [5]
Bahrain Manama BAH OBBI Bahrain International Airport [4]
Brazil Belem Pará BEL SBBE Val de Cans International Airport [6]
Brazil Rio de Janeiro GIG SBGL Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport [6]
Brazil São Paulo VCP SBKP Viracopos International Airport [7]
Brazil São Paulo GRU SBGR São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport [1]
Canada Vancouver British Columbia YVR CYVR Vancouver International Airport [5]
China Beijing PEK ZBAA Beijing Capital International Airport [5]
China Dalian Liaoning DLC ZYTL Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport [5]
China Guangzhou Guangdong CAN ZGGG Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport [5]
China Hangzhou Zhejiang HGH ZSHC Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport [8]
China Qingdao Shandong TAO ZSQD Qingdao Liuting International Airport [8]
China Shanghai SHA ZSSS Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport [5]
China Shanghai PVG ZSPD Shanghai Pudong International Airport [5]
China Tianjin TSN ZBTJ Tianjin Binhai International Airport [5]
China Xiamen Fujian XMN ZSAM Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport [8]
China Xi'an Shaanxi XIY ZLXY Xi'an Xianyang International Airport [9]
Denmark Copenhagen Capital Region of Denmark CPH EKCH Copenhagen Airport [10]
Egypt Cairo CAI HECA Cairo International Airport [10]
Fiji Nadi NAN NFFN Nadi International Airport [7]
Finland Helsinki Uusimaa HEL EFHK Helsinki Airport [5]
France Paris Île-de-France CDG LFPG Charles de Gaulle Airport [5]
Germany Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia DUS EDDL Düsseldorf Airport [4]
Germany Frankfurt Hesse FRA EDDF Frankfurt Airport [5]
Germany Hamburg HAM EDDH Hamburg Airport [10]
Greece Athens Attica ATH LGAT Athens International Airport [10]
Guam Guam GUM PGUM Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport [5]
Hong Kong Hong Kong HKG VHHH Hong Kong International Airport [5]
Hong Kong Hong Kong HKG VHHH Kai Tak Airport [5]
Hungary Budapest Central Hungary BUD LHBP Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport
Iceland Reykjavík Capital Region KEF BIKF Keflavík International Airport
India Delhi National Capital Territory of Delhi DEL VIDP Indira Gandhi International Airport [5]
India Kolkata West Bengal CCU VECC Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport [11][12]
India Mumbai Maharashtra BOM VABB Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport [10]
Indonesia Denpasar Bali DPS WADD Ngurah Rai International Airport [13]
Indonesia Jakarta Special Capital Region of Jakarta CGK WIII Soekarno-Hatta International Airport [5]
Iran Tehran IKA OIIE Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport [10]
Italy Milan Lombardy MXP LIMC Milan–Malpensa Airport [13]
Italy Rome Lazio FCO LIRF Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport [10]
Japan Akita Tōhoku AXT RJSK Akita Airport [14]
Japan Amami Ōshima Kyūshū ASJ RJKA Amami Airport [14]
Japan Aomori Tōhoku AOJ RJSA Aomori Airport [14]
Japan Asahikawa Hokkaidō AKJ RJEC Asahikawa Airport [14]
Japan Fukuoka Kyūshū FUK RJFF Fukuoka Airport [14]
Japan Hakodate Hokkaidō HKD RJCH Hakodate Airport [14]
Japan Hanamaki Tōhoku HNA RJSI Hanamaki Airport [14]
Japan Hiroshima Chūgoku HIJ RJOA Hiroshima Airport [14]
Japan Iwakuni Chūgoku IWK RJOI Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni [15]
Japan Izumo Chūgoku IZO RJOC Izumo Airport [14]
Japan Kagoshima Kyūshū KOJ RJFK Kagoshima Airport [14]
Japan Kitakyūshū Kyūshū KKJ RJFR New Kitakyushu Airport [14]
Japan Kobe Kansai UKB RJBE Kobe Airport [16]
Japan Kōchi Shikoku KCZ RJOK Kochi Airport [14]
Japan Komatsu Chūbu KMQ RJNK Komatsu Airport [14]
Japan Kumamoto Kyūshū KMJ RJFT Kumamoto Airport [14]
Japan Kushiro Hokkaidō KUH RJCK Kushiro Airport [14]
Japan Matsuyama Shikoku MYJ RJOM Matsuyama Airport [14]
Japan Misawa Tōhoku MSJ RJSM Misawa Air Base [14]
Japan Miyazaki Kyūshū KMI RJFM Miyazaki Airport [14]
Japan Nagasaki Kyūshū NGS RJFU Nagasaki Airport [14]
Japan Nagoya Chūbu NKM RJNA Nagoya Komaki Airport [17]
Japan Nagoya Chūbu NGO RJGG Chūbu Centrair International Airport [14]
Japan Naha Okinawa OKA ROAH Naha Airport [14]
Japan Niigata Chūbu KIJ RJSN Niigata Airport [14]
Japan Obihiro Hokkaidō OBO RJCB Tokachi-Obihiro Airport [14]
Japan Ōita Kyūshū OIT RJFO Oita Airport [14]
Japan Okayama Chūgoku OKJ RJOB Okayama Airport [14]
Japan Osaka Kansai KIX RJBB Kansai International Airport [14]
Japan Osaka Kansai ITM RJOO Osaka International Airport [14]
Japan Ōzora Hokkaidō MMB RJCM Memanbetsu Airport [14]
Japan Sapporo Hokkaidō CTS RJCC New Chitose Airport [14]
Japan Shirahama Kansai SHM RJBD Nanki Shirahama Airport [14]
Japan Shizuoka Chūbu FSZ RJNS Shizuoka Airport [18]
Japan Takamatsu Shikoku TAK RJOT Takamatsu Airport [14]
Japan Tokunoshima Kyūshū TKN RJKN Tokunoshima Airport [14]
Japan Tokushima Shikoku TKS RJOS Tokushima Airport [14]
Japan Tokyo Kantō HND RJTT Haneda Airport [14]
Japan Tokyo Kantō NRT RJAA Narita International Airport [14]
Japan Yamagata Tōhoku GAJ RJSC Yamagata Airport [14]
Japan Yamaguchi-Ube Chūgoku UBJ RJDC Yamaguchi Ube Airport [14]
Kuwait Kuwait City KWI OKBK Kuwait International Airport [7]
Lebanon Beirut BEY OLBA Beirut-Rafic Hariri International Airport [12]
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur KUL WMKK Kuala Lumpur International Airport [5]
Mexico Mexico City MEX MMMX Mexico City International Airport [8]
Netherlands Amsterdam North Holland AMS EHAM Amsterdam Airport Schiphol [10]
New Caledonia Noumea NOU NWWW La Tontouta International Airport [13]
New Zealand Auckland Auckland Region AKL NZAA Auckland Airport [7]
Northern Mariana Islands Saipan SPN PGSN Saipan International Airport [4]
Pakistan Karachi Sindh KHI OPKC Jinnah International Airport [10]
Philippines Angeles City Central Luzon CRK RPLC Clark International Airport [19]
Philippines Cebu Central Visayas CEB RPVM Mactan-Cebu International Airport
Philippines Manila National Capital Region MNL RPLL Ninoy Aquino International Airport [5]
Russia Khabarovsk Khabarovsk Krai KHV UHHH Khabarovsk Novy Airport [10]
Russia Moscow Central Federal District DME UUDD Domodedovo International Airport [5]
Russia Moscow Central Federal District SVO UUEE Sheremetyevo International Airport [5][20]
Singapore Singapore SIN WSSS Singapore Changi Airport [5]
South Korea Busan Yeongnam PUS RKPK Gimhae International Airport [5]
South Korea Seoul Seoul National Capital Area GMP RKSS Gimpo International Airport [5]
South Korea Seoul Seoul National Capital Area ICN RKSI Incheon International Airport [5][21]
Spain Madrid MAD LEMD Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport [7]
Switzerland Zürich ZRH LSZH Zürich Airport [7]
Taiwan Kaohsiung Southern Taiwan KHH RCKH Kaohsiung International Airport [5]
Taiwan Taipei Northern Taiwan TSA RCSS Taipei Songshan Airport [5]
Taiwan Taipei Northern Taiwan TPE RCTP Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport [5]
Thailand Bangkok Central Thailand DMK VTBD Don Mueang International Airport [5]
Thailand Bangkok Central Thailand BKK VTBS Suvarnabhumi Airport [5]
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Emirate of Abu Dhabi AUH OMAA Abu Dhabi International Airport [7]
United Kingdom London Greater London LHR EGLL Heathrow Airport [5]
United States Anchorage Alaska ANC PANC Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport [10]
United States Atlanta Georgia ATL KATL Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport [2]
United States Boston Massachusetts BOS KBOS Logan International Airport [5]
United States Chicago Illinois ORD KORD O'Hare International Airport [5]
United States Dallas Texas DFW KDFW Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport [22][23]
United States Honolulu Hawaii HNL PHNL Honolulu International Airport [5]
United States Kona Hawaii KOA PHKO Kona International Airport [24][25]
United States Las Vegas Nevada LAS KLAS McCarran International Airport [23]
United States Los Angeles California LAX KLAX Los Angeles International Airport [5]
United States New Orleans Louisiana MSY KMSY Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport [6]
United States New York City New York JFK KJFK John F. Kennedy International Airport [5]
United States San Diego California SAN KSAN San Diego International Airport [5]
United States San Francisco California SFO KSFO San Francisco International Airport [5]
United States Seattle Washington SEA KSEA Seattle-Tacoma International Airport [4]
United States Wake Island AWK PWAK Wake Island Airfield [26]
Venezuela Caracas CCS SMVI Simón Bolívar International Airport [6]
Vietnam Hanoi HAN VVNB Noi Bai International Airport [5]
Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City SGN VVTS Tan Son Nhat International Airport [5]

Kasaysayan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Ang Japan Air Lines Co., Ltd. ay itinatag noong ika-1 ng Agosto 1951, kasama ang gobyerno ng Japan na kinikilala ang pangangailangan para sa isang mapagkakatiwalaang sistema ng transportasyon ng hangin upang matulungan ang Japan na lumago sa pagkatapos ng Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig. Ang eroplano ay itinatag sa isang paunang kabisera ng ¥ 100 milyon; at ang punong-tanggapan nito ay matatagpuan sa Ginza, Chūō, Tokyo. Sa pagitan ng Agosto 27 at 29, ang airline ay nagpatakbo ng mga invitational flight sa isang Douglas DC-3 Kinsei, na naupahan mula sa Philippine Airlines. Noong Oktubre 25, inagurasyon ang unang domestic post-war service ng Japan, na ginagamit ang Martin 2-0-2 na sasakyang panghimpapawid, na pinangalanang Mokusei, at crew na naupahan mula sa Northwest Airlines. [Banggit kailangan] Noong ika-1 ng Agosto 1953, ang National Diet ay nagpasa sa Batas ng Kompanya ng Japan Air Lines, na bumubuo ng isang bagong pag-aari ng Japan Air Lines sa Oktubre 1, na ipinapalagay ang lahat ng mga asset at pananagutan ng pribadong hinalinhan nito. Noong 1953, ang JAL ay pinalawig na pahilaga mula sa Tokyo patungo sa Sapporo at Misawa, at sa dakong timog sa Nagoya, Osaka, Iwakuni at Fukuoka. Noong Pebrero 2, 1954, nagsimula ang eroplano ng international flight, nagdala ng 18 pasahero mula sa Tokyo hanggang San Francisco sa isang Douglas DC-6B City of Tokyo sa pamamagitan ng Wake Island at Honolulu. Ang mga flight sa pagitan ng Tokyo at San Francisco ay pa rin ang Flight 1 at 2, upang gunitain ang unang international service nito. Ang mga unang flight ay na-advertise bilang pinatatakbo ng American crews at serbisiyo ng United Air Lines sa San Francisco. Ang airline, bukod sa Douglas DC-3, Douglas DC-6B at Martin 2-0-2s, ay nag-operasyon ng Douglas DC-4 at Douglas DC-7C noong 1950s. Ang JAL ay nagsakay sa Hong Kong sa pamamagitan ng Okinawa noong 1955, na itinakwil ang domestic network nito sa Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka at Sapporo. Noong 1958 ang ruta ng Hong Kong ay pinalawak sa Bangkok at Singapore. Sa DC-7Cs JAL ay nakapag-fly ng walang-hintong pagitan ng Seattle at Tokyo noong 1959.

Jet era[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Noong 1960, inalis ng airline ang unang jet nito, isang Douglas DC-8 na nagngangalang Fuji, nagpapakilala ng jet service sa ruta ng Tokyo-Honolulu-San Francisco. Nagpunta si JAL upang magpatakbo ng isang fleet ng 51 DC-8s, na nagreretiro sa huling uri noong 1987. Lumipad si Fuji hanggang 1974 at pagkatapos ay ginamit bilang isang maintenance training platform hanggang 1989; ang seksyon ng ilong nito ay naka-imbak sa Haneda Airport at sa huli ay ilagay sa pampublikong pagpapakita sa JAL Sky Museum sa Marso 2014. Ang JAL ay nagsimulang lumipad sa Seattle at Hong Kong noong 1960. Sa katapusan ng 1961, ang JAL ay nagkaroon ng mga transpolar flight mula sa Tokyo patungong Seattle, Copenhagen, London at Paris sa pamamagitan ng Anchorage, Alaska at sa Los Angeles at San Francisco sa pamamagitan ng Honolulu, Hawaii.

Noong 1960, ang JAL ay nagsakay sa maraming bagong lungsod kabilang ang Moscow, New York at Pusan. [27] [28] [29] Ang DC-8 flight sa Europa sa pamamagitan ng Anchorage ay nagsimula noong 1961; Ang mga flight sa Europa sa pamamagitan ng India ay nagsimula noong 1962, una sa Convair 880s.

Sa pagitan ng 1967 at 1969, nagkaroon ng kasunduan ang JAL sa Aeroflot upang magpatakbo ng isang magkasanib na serbisyo sa pagitan ng Tokyo at Moscow gamit ang Sobiyet Tupolev Tu-114. Kabilang sa flight crew ang isang miyembro ng JAL, at ang cabin crew ay may limang miyembro bawat isa mula sa Aeroflot at JAL. Nagsimula ang lingguhang paglipad noong Abril 1967; Mayo ang iskedyul ay 10 hr 35 min [Moscow]] sa [Tokyo]] at 11 hr 25 min upang bumalik.[kailangan ng sanggunian] Sa 1972, sa ilalim ng 45/47 system ([[:: 45/47 体制 | 45/47 体制]], yongo-yonnana taisei), ang tinatawag na "aviation constitution" gobyerno, ang JAL ay ipinagkaloob ang kalagayan ng flag carrier upang magpatakbo ng mga internasyonal na ruta. Ang eroplano ay itinalaga din upang magpatakbo ng mga ruta ng domestic na puno sa kumpetisyon sa All Nippon Airways at Toa Domestic Airlines.

Ang pag-sign ng Kasunduan sa Sasakyan ng Sasakyan sa pagitan ng Tsina at Japan noong ika-20 ng Abril 1974, ang naging sanhi ng pagsuspinde ng mga ruta ng hangin sa pagitan ng Taiwan at Japan noong ika-21 ng Abril. Ang isang bagong subsidiary, Japan Asia Airways, ay itinatag noong Agosto 8, 1975, at ang mga serbisyo ng hangin sa pagitan ng dalawang bansa ay naibalik noong Setyembre 15. Noong 1970s, ang airline ay bumili ng Boeing 727, Boeing 747 at McDonnell Douglas DC-10 para sa lumalaking ruta nito sa Japan at sa ibang mga bansa. [30] [31]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ended in 2010 as part of JAL's restructuring per JAL vows to return to Sao Paulo, Flightglobal, 2 Oct 2010
  2. 2.0 2.1 Appears in OAG, October 1, 1996
  3. "JAL proposes Melbourne launch in Sep 2017". routesonline. Hinango noong 26 May 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Appears in 1987 route map
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 Appears in current international timetable
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Served by "special service" between Japan and Brazil per 1957 timetable and 1970 route map.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Appears in early 1980s route map
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Service withdrawn in winter 2009/10.
  9. Suspended in 2008 per JAL press release, September 4, 2008
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 Appears in 1976 route map
  11. Bandopadhyay, Sabyasachi (22 December 2011). "Growing airport loses its last link to the West". Indian Express. Hinango noong 31 December 2013. Kolkata is now the only international airport in any of the four metros to be left without a direct flight to Europe or the Americas. In the 1950s and 1960s, apart from Lufthansa and British Airways, the airport also had flights of Pan Am, Aeroflot and KLM, besides Japan Airlines.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Appears in 1970 route map.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Appears in 1996 route map
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 14.20 14.21 14.22 14.23 14.24 14.25 14.26 14.27 14.28 14.29 14.30 14.31 14.32 14.33 14.34 14.35 14.36 Appears in current domestic timetable
  15. Appears in 1953 route map
  16. JAL terminated all services out of Kobe and closed its office on June 1, 2010. "兵庫県と神戸市・神商、神戸空港24時間化など要望 国交省に". 日本経済新聞. 1 June 2010. Hinango noong 31 December 2013.
  17. Service transferred to Chubu in 2005 per JAL press release, Feb 10, 2005
  18. Commenced in 2009 and cancelled in 2010.
  19. http://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/403246/JAL-executive-eyes-Clark-Narita-flights
  20. Service transferred to Domodedovo Airport in December 2007 per JAL press release, September 4, 2007
  21. "JAL ends Tokyo Narita - Seoul Incheon service in March 2018". routesonline. Hinango noong 12 July 2017.
  22. http://airlineroute.net/2015/08/30/jl-dfw-w15/
  23. 23.0 23.1 Suspended in 2001 following September 11, 2001 attacks.
  24. "Hawaiian Airlines to renew push for Tokyo-Kona non-stop service". Japan Today. 25 October 2013. Hinango noong 31 December 2013. Kona has been without a non-stop flight from Japan since Oct 29, 2010, when Japan Airlines discontinued direct service to West Hawaii from Narita International Airport.
  25. "JAL to start Narita-Melbourne route and resume Kona route in September". The Japan Times. 30 May 2017. Hinango noong 30 May 2017.
  26. Appears in 1957 timetable as an intermediate transpacific stop.
  27. Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang hist50s); $2
  28. [http: //www.jal.com/en/history/history/age_61-70.html "Kasaysayan ng JAL 1961-1970"] Check |url= value (tulong). Japan Airlines. Hinango noong 2009-09-06.
  29. [http: //www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Japan-Airlines-Company-Ltd-Company-History.html "Japan Airlines Company, Ltd"] Check |url= value (tulong). fundinguniverse.com. Hinango noong 2009 -09-06. Check date values in: |accessdate= (tulong)
  30. Maling banggit (Hindi tamang <ref> tag; walang binigay na teksto para sa refs na may pangalang hist60s); $2
  31. [http: //www.jal.com/en/history/history/age_71-80.html "Kasaysayan ng JAL 1971-1980"] Check |url= value (tulong). Japan Airlines. Hinango noong 2009 -09-06. Check date values in: |accessdate= (tulong)