Talaan ng mga fossil na transisyonal

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Tinatanggap ang anumang pagbabago at mga sanggunian.
Maaring isa ito sa maayos na napriserbang fossils, sa Berlin isang ispeismen ng isang sinaunang ibon na Archaeopteryx lithographica

Ito ay isang probisyonal na listahan ng palampas fossils (fossil na labi ng isang nilalang na nagpapakita primitive mga ugali sa paghahambing na may higit nagmula organismo na kung saan ito ay may kaugnayan). Ang fossils ay nakalista sa serye, na ipinapakita ang paglipat mula sa isang pangkat sa isa pang, na kumakatawan sa makabuluhang mga hakbang sa paglaki ng mga pangunahing tampok sa iba't-ibang linya. Madalas kumakatawan sa mga pagbabagong ito ang mga pangunahing pagbabago sa anatomya, na may kaugnayan sa paraan ng buhay, tulad ng pagbili ng mga feathered wings para sa isang panghimpapawid na lifestyle sa ibon, o binti sa isda / tetrapod transition. Tulad ng nabanggit na sa pamamagitan ng Darwin, ang fossil record ay hindi kumpleto.

May perpektong, listahang ito dapat lamang recursively fossil na transisyunal na kumakatawan sa mga supling na mga specie mula sa kung saan na grupo na lumaki sa ibang pagkakataon, ngunit pinaka-kung hindi lahat, ng mga fossils na ipinapakita dito ay kumakatawan sa mga sanga, higit pa o mas mababa malapit na nauugnay sa ang totoo nitong mga ninuno.

Mula sa Nautiloid Hanggang sa ammonoid[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The NautiloidsAmmonoids Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
>500 Ma

Subclass:

Silurian Orthoceras Fossil Macro 2.JPG
390 Ma

Order:

  • myiembro ng mga Nautiloida.
  • isang direktang ninuno ng mga of the ammonoida.
370 Ma

Subclass:

  • DIrektang kamag anak ng mga Bactirida.
Ammonite Asteroceras.jpg

Cephalopods[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Cephalopod Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
296 Ma

Uri

Isang sinaunang Cephalopod na sinasabing isang Pusit.
164 Ma

Genus:

Ang sinaunag uri ng pugita (octopod). 200px
165–164 Ma

Genus:

Ang matandang Uri ng Cephalopod na maaring pinag mulan ng Pusit at Mga pugita (Vampyromorphida). Vampylarge.JPG
89 - 71 Ma

Genus:

Isang sinanunang uri ng octopod. 200px

Ebulusyon ng mga Insekto[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Insect Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
400 Ma

Genus:

Pinaka matatandang insekto sa daigdig.
400 Ma

Genus:

Kauna-unahang uri ng springtail.

300 Ma

Genus:

Ninuno ng mga Ipis,tipaklong at mga Anay.

316.5 Ma

Genus:

Sinaunang ipis.

140 Ma

Genus:

Pinaka unang Lepidopteran.

92 Ma

Genus:

Pinakamatandang uri ng bubuyog.

80 Ma

Genus:

Pinaka matandang lahi ng Langgam.

56 - 34 Ma

Genus:

Unang Leaf Insect sa Talaan ng mga Fossil

Ebulusyon ng mga Gagamba [baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Spider Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
390 Ma

Genus:

inanakalang ito ang pinaka matandang uri ng gagamba.
165 Ma

Genus

Sinasabing Ang pinakamatatandang gagamba sa uri ng haplogyne.

Mula sa mga Invertebrates Hanggang sa Isda[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The InvertebratesFish Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
523 Ma

Genus:

Mukhang Lancelet ninuno ng mga vertebrates

Karakter

Pikaia Smithsonian.JPG

504 Ma

Uri:

Merong mga Palaypay, at hugis-chevron na mga Kalamnan at notokord. Conodonts.jpg
530 Ma

Uri:

Merongitong cranium, nan naging craniat.[1] Haikouichthys NT.jpg
480 to 470 Ma

Genus:

Jawless fish isang armadong isdang may panga, tulad sa malaking tadpole kung buhay. Arandaspis prionotolepis fossil.jpg
422-412 Ma

Genus:

Ang anaspid, ninuno ng mga May pangang vertebrates,[2] An unarmored, scaly jawless fish Birkenia elegans.jpg
419 Ma

Genus:

Sinasabing ang pinaka matandang isdang may buto.[3] Guiyu BW.jpg

Mga Chondrichthyes[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Chondrichthyes Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
370 Ma

Uri:

Isang sinaunang Pating. Early Shark.jpg
70 - 65 Ma

Genus:

Sinaunang uri ng sawfish
99 – 65 Ma

Genus:

Ang sinaunang Pagi. Cyclobatis major 1.JPG

Mabubutong Isda[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Bony Fish Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
420 Ma

Genus:

Ang pinaka matandang Actinopterygii.

??? Ma

uri:

Isang Matandang lahi ng mgaIsdang Lapad. Amphistium.JPG
48 – 37 Ma

Genus:

Isang unang isda na masasabing kamukha ng Isdang lapad
183.7–125.0 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa mga unang teleost. Leptolepis dubia cm4694.jpg
99 – 93 Ma

Genus:

Ang pinaka matandang uri ng Palos.
13 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa mga sinaunang seahorse. Tunjice Hills Hippocampus.jpg
13 Ma

Genus:

Sinaunang seahorses. Hippocampus slovenicus.jpg
83 - 70 Ma

Genus:

Sinasabing Unang lahi ng lamprid na isda Nardovelifer altipinnis.jpg
56 - 34 Ma

Genus:

Primitibong uri ng Molidae Sun fish
58 - 55 Ma

Uri:

Ang Pinaka matandang uri sa grupo ng mga Hito, sa pamilya ng mga Callichthyidae. Corydoras revelatus.JPG
56 - 34 Ma

Genus:

Sinaunang rabbitfish.
48 - 37 Ma

Genus:

Sinaunag perch Palaeoperca proxima.jpg
58 - 55 Ma

Uri:

A primitive pomfret Trachicaranx tersus.jpg
48 - 40 Ma

Genus:

Ang unang handfish
48 - 40 Ma

Genus:

Sinasabing ang sinaunang uri ng ostraciid boxfish Eolactoria sorbinii.jpg
48 - 40 Ma

Genus:

Pnakamatandang uri ng aracanid boxfish Proaracana dubia.jpg
48 - 40 Ma

Genus:

A Pninuno ng surgeonfish
48 - 40 Ma

Genus:

isang primitibong uri ng monodactylid moonyfish Psettopsis subarcuatus.jpg
48 - 40 Ma

Genus:

A primitive monodactylid moonyfish Pasaichthys pleuronectiformis.jpg
48 - 40 Ma

uri:

ninuno ng modernong Moorish Idol.
83 - 65 Ma

Genus:

Ang Primitibong myembro ng Tetraodontidae
83 - 65 Ma

Uri :

Ang primibong uri ng Perciforme
58 - 55 Ma

Genus:

Ang primitibong myembro ng Zeidae
58 - 55 Ma

Genus:

Sinaunang Zeidae
??? Ma

Uri'

A primitive member of the Ichthyodectidae Cooyoo australis.jpg
65 Ma

Genus:

A primitive tetraodontid

Mula sa Isda Hanggang sa tetrapods[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The FishTetrapods Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa kaugnayan Estado Deskrpsyon Imahe
416-359 Ma

Genus:

isang sinaunang miyembro ng uring Tetrapodomorpha, Ang piscine ay naging tetrapods o Osteolepis ay ang ninuno ng mga mga tetrapods at lungfish.[4] Fish isang maliit at may katamtamang sukat na isdasng sarcopterygian na may butas ng ilong at palaypay na may mabubutong pangangatawan.[4] Osteolepis macrolepidotus.jpg
385 Ma

Genus:

Belonging to the family Tristichopteridae, a family that form a sister group to Panderichthys and the tetrapods.[4] Though not on the evolutionary path to tetrapods, Eusthenopteron is of fairly general build and is very well known, serving as an iconic model organism in tetrapod evolution.[5] A medium sized, mainly pelagic fish, Eusthenopteron mainly use the pectoral and pelvic fins for navigation, and the tail for propulsion.[5] The fin was of diphycercal, foreshadowing the straightening of the spine and the evolution of a contiguous fin in fish like Panderichthys Eusthenopteron foordi 1.JPG
380 Ma

Genus:

Very close to the origin of tetrapods, a "fishapod" elpistostegalian.[4] Fish A large, predatory shallow water fish. As common in shallow water fish, the pectoral and pelvic fins were flexible and paddle-like for propulsion.[6] The dorsal and anal fins are lost, the tail fin contiguous.[7] The spiracles were short and wide, indication large amount of oxygen were taken up by the lungs rather than through the gills.[8] Panderichthys BW.jpg
375 Ma

Genus:

A "fishapod" more tetrapod-like than Panderichthys.[4] A fish, transitional between fish and the early, fish-like labyrinthodonts.[9][10] "Fish" with stout, fleshy pectoral fins with a joint between the innermost and the two next bony elements, corresponding to the elbow in higher tetrapods. The cleithrum bone was free of the skull, functioning as anchoring for the pectoral fins, and at the same time allowing for movement of the neck.[10][11] Tiktaalik belgium.JPG
368 Ma

Genus:

Analysis of the cranial material shows it was more advanced than Tiktaalik, and together with Obruchevichthys form a sister group to the higher tetrapods.[12] A fairly fragmentary find, Elginerpeton straddles the fish/tetrapod divide with a mosaic of features resembling Panderichthys, Ichthyostega and Hynerpeton.[12] Probably one of the "fishapods".[13] Though fragmentary, the find includes a shoulder blade (Cleitrum bone) as well as elements of the limbs, which shows it had comparable limbs Ichthyostega and Hynerpeton, indicating feet rather than fins. Elginerpeton BW.jpg
365 Ma

Genus:

Known only from fragmentary remains, mostly a lower jaw, Ventastega is morphologically midway between Tiktaalik and Acanthostega/Ichthyostega.[14] Possibly oldest animal to have feet rather than fins.[14] A large, dorso-ventrally flattened predatory fish with a well armoured labyrinthodont-like skull. While the fins themselves has not been found, the shoulder girdle is essentially similar to that of Acanthostega, indicating it too had feet rather than fins.[14] Ventastega BW.jpg
365 Ma

Genus:

Together with Ichthyostega the sole early labyrinthodont known from fairly complete skeletons. It is the oldest animal known to have feet rather than fins, thus making it a true tetrapod and the oldest known unquestionable ichthyostegalian.[15] First known animal with toes rather than fins. The feet were broad and paddle-like, adapted for movement in water.[16] It retained functional gills in adulthood, behind a fleshy operculum. Acanthostega.JPG
365 Ma

Genus:

Fairly closely related to Acanthostega. It possibly represent an early (and ultimately unsuccessful) line adapted to moving on land by inchworm-like movements. Together with Acanthostega the sole early labyrinthodont known from fairly complete skeletons. Early labyrinthodont with polydactylous, paddle-like feet and reinforced vertebrae and neural spines. It probably spent time on land, yet retained gills and a tail with fin rayes. Ichthyostega skull.jpg
360 Ma

Genus:

While known only from fragmentary remains, it is more advanced than Ichthyostega. Early labyrinthodont amphibian A large, basically salamander-like creature. The shoulder girdle was powerful, indicating it was a competent walker.[17] Hynerpeton BW.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

An advanced ichthyostegalian, it straddle the divide between the fish-like Devonian forms and the more advanced Carboniferous amphibians. It has been suggested it is an early reptil-like amphibian.[18] A large animal with paddle-like six-toed feet. It did however not have gills in adulthood, and is thus the oldest labyrinthodont known to depend entirely on breathing with its lungs.[19] Tulerpeton12DB.jpg
359 - 345 Ma

Genus:

Hailing from the fossil-poor Romer's Gap, Pederpes may be ancestral to the higher labyrinthodonts. Intermediate between the earlier Ichthyostegalian and the later, more advanced labyrinthodonts. Despite an extra toe on the forelimbs, Pederpes had limbs that terminated in feet adapted primarely for walking rather than paddles for combined swimming and walking like the earlier groups.[20] Pederpes22small.jpg
295 Ma

Genus:

The Temnospondyli are derived paleozoic amphibians, possibly ancestral to modern amphibians A "classical" temnospondyl, an advanced labyrinthodont group. One of the best known labyrinthodonts, Eryops combines the large, flat skull and short limbs typical of the group. Eryops skeleton.png
The LabyrinthodontiaLissamphibia Evolutionary Series
Appearance Taxa Relationships Status Description Image
290 Ma

Genus:

Colloquially referred to as a "frogamander" due to this taxon being both chronologically and morphologically basal to both anurans and salamanders One of the first transitional fossils towards modern amphibians (Lissamphibia).[21] Primitive traits
  • Backbone with intermediate characteristics
  • Retains a fully developed tail

Derived traits

  • Bears a large space for a tympanic ear
  • Ankle bones are fused together like in salamanders
  • Lightly built wide skull as in frogs[21]

Gerobatrachus NT.jpg

250 Ma

Genus:

Intermediate between generalized amphibians and derived frogs Early "almost frog" transitional amphibian Primitive traits
  • Possessed short limbs and therefore was unable to hop, unlike all extant anurans
  • Retains fourteen vertebra unlike modern frogs who have four to nine vertebra
  • Tibia and fibula are not fused into a tibiofibula

Derived traits

  • Skull resembles that of modern anuran skull with a latticework of thin bones in skull

Triadobatrachus BW.jpg

190 Ma

Genus:

Another transitional form which could be properly classified as a frog An intermediate form which may replace Triadobatrachus as the "ultimate" ancestor of anurans Primitive traits
  • Still possess relatively short limbs

Derived traits

  • Tail is greatly reduced
  • Does not have greatly enlarged legs, but shows some adaptations for hopping, such as a three-pronged pelvis
Prosalirus BW.jpg
213-188 Ma

Genus:

A derived fossil frog completing the series of transitional fossils between early amphibians and modern anurans The oldest "true" frog[22] Primitive traits
  • Retains ten presacral vertebra

Derived traits

  • Hind legs are adapted for hopping

Vieraella NT.jpg

210 Ma

Genus:

Intermediate between basal amphibians and caecilians An early caecilian Primitive traits
  • Bears three-toed vestigial limbs
  • The size of the orbits indicates well developed eyes and suggest a non-subterranean lifestyle

Derived traits

  • The body has been adapted to a sort of serpentine shape

Eocaecilia BW.jpg

Mula sa mga Amphibians hanggang sa mga amniotes (unang lahi ng mga reptilya)[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The AmphibiansReptiles Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Kaugnayan Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
326 - 318 Ma

Genus:

One of the early reptile-like amphibians Amphibian A large, somewhat lizard-like labyrinthodont with a deep skull, laterally placed eyes and five digits to each foot. Proterogyrinus NT.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

The order Diadectomorpha is the sister group of the amniotes. The Limnoscelis was originally described as a "cotylosaur" (early reptiles) together with the other diadectomorphans. Today the large-bodied diadectomorphs are thought to have had a larval stage, falling close to, but just outside the amphibian/reptile divide. A large, predatory reptile-like amphibian. The limbs are extremely heavily built, indicating it fed on slow moving prey. Limnoscelis(Cast)-RedpathMuseumMontreal-June6-08.png
??? Ma

Genus:

Uncertain phylogeny, possibly a Seymouriamorph or Diadectomorph[23][24] Amphibian A medium sized, probably herbivorious animal Tseajaia BW.jpg
350 Ma

Genus:

Uncertain phylogenetic position. Westlothiana may be a small-bodied diadectopmorph, falling just outside the amphibian/reptile divide Originally described as the first reptile, it is now considered an advanced reptile-like amphibian. Small, probably insectovorious animal. The body and tail was long, the limbs small, somewhat like a modern skink. Westlothiana BW.jpg
320-305 Ma

Genus:

Possibly allied to the Diadectomorpha, or belonging to a sister group to Diadectomorpha and Amniota[25] Likely an amphibian[25] Smallish, likely carnivorious.[26] Solenodonsaurus1DB.jpg
340 Ma

Genus:

The fragmentary nature of the fossil (it lacks a cranium) makes an exact phylogenetic position hard to establish. Possibly the first animal with an amniote egg, and thus the first reptile. Small lizard-like animal, the first known tetrapod to possess claws, indicating it has reptilian type skin with scutes.[27] Casineria kiddi tilted.jpg
315 Ma

Genus:

One of several small, basal reptile genera Reptile An early anapsid reptile, considered to be ancestral to both the synapsid and sauropsid lines, and thus the oldest representative of the crown group amniotes. Hylonomus BW.jpg
312 - 304 Ma

Genus:

One of several small, basal reptile genera Reptile (most likely a sauropsid) An early anapsid reptile. In phylogenetic analysis it falls on the sauropsid side, it is thus likely a progenitor of the diapsids Paleothyris BACKGROUND.JPG

Pinag mulan ng mga Pagong at mga Pawikan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Turtle Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
220 Ma

Genus:

Pinaka matandang uri ng Pagong.

Odontochelys semitestacea.jpg

210 Ma

Uri:

Proganochelys Quenstedti.jpg
164 Ma

Uri:

Isang Tulay ng Ebolusyon sa pagitan ng mga pagong at mga sea turtles.

Mula sa mga Butiki hanggang sa mga Ahas[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The LizardSnake Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
92 Ma

Uri:

Isang uri ng Butiki na nasa anyong ahas na mula sa Panahong Cretaceous , Ito ay may apat na mga paa , (Marahil nagagamit o Marring ding hindi ang mga ito) .[28] Eupodophis descouensi Holotype.jpg
90 Ma

Uri:

Isang uri ng Sinaunang ahas na may dalwang paa.

Uri ng mga Butiki[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Lizard Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
61 - 58 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa mga nakitang kauna-unahang chameleon.
92 Ma

Genus:

isang uri ng mosasauroid mula s Upper Cretaceous ng Hilanagng Amerika.
71 - 82 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa mga matandang uri ng Varanoidea.
146–100 Ma

Genus:

isang sinaunang uri ng iguanid
97–100 Ma

Genus:

Pinaka matandang uri ng tuko

Ang Pterosaura[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

RhamphorhynchoideaPterodactyloidea Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
160 Ma

Uri:

Basal to both rhamphorhynchoids and pterodactyloids Darwinopterus.jpg
160 Ma

Genus

Ebulusyon ng mga Archosaura hanggang sa dinosaura[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Padron:Expert-subject

The ArchosauriaDinosauria Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
??? Ma

Genus:

Ang Pinaka matandang uri ng archosaur, Ang Proterosuchus ay isa sa mga pinakamalaking reptilya lupa sa panahon ng Maagang Triassic, tungkol sa laki ng sa ngayon Komodo dragon s. Ito ay tumingin medyo buwaya, may nababagsak binti, mahaba ang panga, malakas na kalamnan at isang mahabang buntot. Ang isang natatanging proterosuchus kaugalian ay ang kakaiba hugis .

Archosaurus ross1DB.jpg

??? Ma

Genus:

Marasuchus.JPG
??? Ma

Genus:

Ang pinakaMatandang hayop sa uri ng dinosauro at terosor, magmula pa sa 245,000,000 taon na ang nakakaraan[31] A small, lightly built animal. It had a fairly long neck (contrary to the short necked relatives of crocodiles), but ran on all four legs. Asilisaurus.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

Nadiskubre lamang sa hwa-hiwalay na fossil ang Spondylosoma ay maaring isang naunang lahi o magiging dinosaur.[32] It has however also been classified as a rauisuchian.[33]
228 Ma

Genus:

Ang kauna-unahang masasabing isangsauropod.[34][35][36] isang mallit (na umaabo lamang sa 1 metro, ~ 10 kg) na kayang lumalakad sa dalawang paa at may matatalim na mga ngipin at mabilis din tumak bo at may matatalas na mga kuko. EoraptorBrussels.jpg

Dinosauria[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Padron:Expert-subject

The Dinosauria Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
228 to 216.5 Ma

Genus:

Pinaka matandang uri ng ornithischian.

Pisanosaurus.jpg
216–200 Ma

Genus:

Ang sinaunang uri ng sauropodomorph bago naging ganap na dinosaur. Thecodontosaurus.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

Ang pinaka matandang nakita na lahi ng stegosaur. Huayangosaurus taibaii 20050707 07.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

isang [pachycephalosaur]] mula sa Barremian panahon ng Cretaceous.
160 Ma

Genus:

isang uri ng ceratopsian mula sa Huling panahon ng Jurasik a Asya Sentral. Yinlong skull.jpg
160 Ma

Genus:

isang lahi ng proceratosaurid at tyrannosauroid , isa sa pinaka matandang halimbawa ng dinosaur. Guanlong fossil.jpg
126 Ma

Genus:

Ang snaunang uri ng mga therizinosaur Falcarius.jpg
208–194 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa mga sinaunang uri ng thyreophorans. Scelidosaurus skeleton.png
130–125 Ma

Genus:

Maaring ninuno ng mga dinosaur na may tuka na parang sa itik. ProbactrosaurusGobiensis-PaleozoologicalMuseumOfChina-May23-08.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

Isang sinaunang uri ng ornithomimosaur.

Mula sa Dinosaur hanggang sa mga ibon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Dinosaursbirds Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
152-151 Ma

Genus:

Primitive traits
  • Undifferentiated hind digits displaying no specialties for climbing
  • Spine attaches to the back end of the skull rather than the base
  • Moderately long, bony tail

Derived traits

  • Basic proto-feathers cover parts of the body for insulation
Juravenator starkae.JPG
168-152 Ma

Genus:

The find is represented only by a hind leg, but one that is very bird-like. It belonged to a small maniraptoran dinosaur with long, pennaceous feathers on its hind legs and (in all likelihood) arms.
161-151 Ma

Genus:

Basal troodontid Although once classified as a bird, Anchiornis is now considered a basal troodontid which bears pennaceous, symmetrical feathers on all four limbs. Primitive traits
  • Wings symmetrical and rounded, probably not used for flight but instead insulation, mating displays, and gliding
  • Long legs overall morphology similar to that of other troodontids
  • Spine attaches to the back end of the skull rather than the base
  • Moderately long, bony tail

Derived traits

  • Flexible wrists which are more similar to aves than other theropods
  • Like birds and unlike troodontids, Anchiornis had arms nearly the same length as the hind legs
  • Bore primary and secondary pennaceous symmetrical wings on both arms, legs, toes, and wrist
Anchiornis BW.jpg
150–145 Ma

Genus:

Known for its mosaic of avian and theropod characteristics Archaeopteryx is both the first primitive bird in the fossil record and one of the first transitional fossils discovered. Traditionally seen as the first proper bird, though it is not directly ancestral to modern birds.[37] An excellent intermediate form between dinosaurs and birds. Capable of gliding, but lacking alula and keel, it could likely not sustain powered flight. Primitive traits
  • Slower dinosaur-like growth rate
  • No keel
  • Spine attaches to the back end of the skull rather than the base
  • Forelimbs have three unfused, clawed fingers, no alula
  • Maxilla and premaxilla bore unserrated teeth
  • Moderately long, bony tail

Derived traits

  • Fully developed asymmetrical flight feathers
  • Fused furcula from two joined clavicles
  • Backward and elongated pubis similar to maniraptors, but not found in more primitive theropods
Archaeopteryx lithographica (Berlin specimen).jpg
120 Ma

Genus:

Found in the famous Liaoning province Confuciusornis is the first primitive bird with a pygostyle. With its short tail and toothless beak, Confuciusornis is very modern looking compared to Archaeopteryx. The toothless beak is however a case of convergent evolution, as more advanced birds retained teeth, illustration the sometimes confusing mosaic evolution of the dinosaur-bird transition. Primitive traits
  • Retained unfused clawed digits, no alula
  • Sideways-facing glenoid joint

Derived traits

  • Short tail with fused vertebrae at the end (pygostyle)
  • Larger sternum with a low primitive keel
  • Unlike other early birds Confuciusornis had a toothless beak
Confuciusornis sanctus (2).jpg
115 Ma

Genus:

Primitive bird and possibly a descendant of "urvogels" like Archaeopteryx. First bird to possess an alula. Plesiomophic traits
  • Two unfused, functional digits remain on second and third digit

Derived traits

  • First digit bearing an alula rather than claw
93.5-75 Ma

Genus:

Considered a close relative to the ancestor to modern birds A flying bird found in several epochs in the late Cretaceous which still bore teeth, but in most respects very similar to Neornithes. Primitive traits
  • Numerous sharp teeth in much of the beak

Derived traits

  • Fused bones (metacarpals) II & III of the hand
  • Rigid ribcage with a well-developed carina
  • No functional claws on the hand
  • Short childhood with distinct adult stage.[38]
Ichthyornis yale.JPG

Ebolusyon ng Mga Ibon[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Padron:Expert-subject

The Bird Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
60-58 Ma

Uri:

Ang Kauna unahang uri ng Penguin.

Waimanu BW.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

Akuna unahang uri ng flamingo.
??? Ma

Genus:

Ang kauna unahang gaviiform.
55-48 Ma

Genus:

Ang kauna unahangpsittacine.
??? Ma

Genus:

Isang Ang kauna unahang uri ng falconiform.
50 Ma

Genus:

Ang kauna unahang uri ng apodiform.

Ang mga Synapsid (Reptilya na naging myebro ng Mamalya)[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The SynapsidsMammals Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Deiskripsyon Imahe
??? Ma

Genus:

Kilala sa pagkaka hiwa-hiwalay na pag kakadiskubre ang mga Protoclepsydrops Maaring sila ang mga unang synapsid (Sa pagitan ng mamalya at mga Reptilya) isang mabagal at mukhang butiking nilalang na may katamtamang sukat.
306 Ma

Genus:

The oldest undisputed synapsid (mammal-like reptile) Primitbong Anyo
  • Isang Palapad at mukhang butiki.
  • Typically reptilian sprawling gait
  • Generally lizard-like proportions with a dorso-ventrally flattened body

Pagbabago

Archaeothyris BW.jpg
297 Ma Genus: A primitive member of the Sphenacodontidae, or possibly just outside the group.[39][40] A pelycosaur-grade synapsid Derived traits
  • Two or three moderately large canine-like teeth about a third down the maxilla.[41]
  • Dentary bone the largest element of the lower jaw[40]
  • The skull deeper than in Archaeothyris
Haptodus BW.jpg
265 Ma

Genus:

An advanced member of the family Sphenacodontidae, from which the therapsids (advanced synapsids) evolved A pelycosaur-grade synapsid. At up to 4 meters, Dimetrodon was one of the largest animals of its time. The distinct sail of the back makes it the most recognized synapsid known

Primitive traits

  • Cold blooded metabolism dependent of external heat source (hence the "sail")[42]
  • Sprawling gait
  • No secondary palate
  • No enlarged side teeth in the lower jaw

Derived traits

  • Distinctly elongated 2nd and 3rd tooth on the maxilla, corresponding to the canine in mammals. The first canine generally longer than the second.[43]
  • Skull deep and narrow
  • Body overall deeper than in earlier forms
Dimetrodon skeleton.jpg
267 Ma

Genus:

Ang sinaunang therapsid. na kasing laki nga isang Aso, Ang Biarmosuchus ay isang magaan na hayop na kkayang kumain ng isang rin na hayop na kasinglai ng isang Agila.[44]

Primitive traits

Derived traits

  • A single canine as the first tooth on the maxilla, all other maxillary teeth small
  • Tendency for an enlarged caninelike tooth on the dentary
  • Internal nostrils covered by a partial fleshy palate[46]
  • Enlarged temporal opening giving more powerful bite
Biarmosuchus.jpg
248-245 Ma

Genus:

A small bodied relative of the larger Cynognathus. Am advanced cynodont, just on the reptilian side of the reptile/mammal divide Primitive traits

Derived traits

  • Well developed respiratory turbinates and palate, indicating homeothermy
  • Generally mammal-like dentition.
  • Mammal-like ecology: Burrowing and small size
  • Animals of different sizes found together, indicating post-hatching parental care.
Thrinaxodon Lionhinus.jpg
205 Ma

Genus:

Isang Sinaunang Mamalya Morganucodon.jpg
125 Ma

Genus:

Isang Sinaunang mammalya. Yanoconodon BW.jpg

Ebolusyon ng Uring mammalya[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Mammal Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
100–104 Ma

Genus:

Sinaunang uri ng monotreme.

125 Ma

Genus:

Ang Pinaka matandang uri ng metatherian na nakita.

Sinodelphys szalayi.JPG
?? Ma

Genus:

Ang kauna-unahang lahi ng marsupial (umaakyat o nakatira sa Puno).

Djarthia murgonensis.jpg
164-165 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa matandang uri ng eutherian[48]

Juramaia NT.jpg
63-50 Ma

Genus:

Kauna-unahang lahi ng proboscidean.

60-55 Ma

Genus:

Posibleng ninuno ng mga hayop / mamalya na nasa hanay ng Carnivora.

Miacis.jpg
15.97–11.61 Ma

Genus:

Kauna-unahang uri ng Alamid.

Heteroprox eggeri.JPG
20-18 Ma

Genus:

Matandang uri ng bovid.

Eotragus sansaniensis.JPG
45-40 Ma

Genus:

Ang pinaka matandang uri kamely na nakita, at ang pinaka maliit.

??? Ma

Genus:

Hinihinalang ang ninuno ng mga modernong uri ng tapir at mga rhinoceros.

Hyrachyus.png
55.4—48.6 Ma

Genus:

Isa din sa pinag hihinalaang ninuno ng mga tapir.

Heptodon posticus.jpg
38—33.9 Ma

Genus:

Isang matandang lahi ng canid.

Hesperocyon Gregarius.jpg
??? Ma

Genus:

ang matandang uri ng lagomorph na nakita.

52.5 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa pinaka matatdang ninuno ng mga monospecific na nasa lahi ng mga paniki.

2 Ma

Species:

ang isa sa mga Pinaka matandang miyembro ng Higanteng Panda.

63 - 61.7Ma

Genus:

Pinaniniwalaang ang isa sa kauna-unahang uri ng primate (Lahi ng unggoy) o isang proto-primate, na isang 'primatomorph na ninuno ng mga Plesiadapiformes. Purgatorius BW.jpg
12.5-8.5 Ma

Genus:

MIto ay isang sinaunang lahi ng unggoy na maihahalintulad sa mga Urangutan.

Sivapithecus.jpg
16 - 8 Ma

Genus:

Isa sa maaring ninuno ng lahinghippopotamid (Hipoptamus).

?? Ma

Genus:

Ito ang masasbing Kauna-unahang uri ng totoong may kaliskis pangolin. Eomanis waldi 1.JPG

Mual sa uring artiodactyla hanggang sa pagiging balyena (Ebolusyon ng mga Balyena)[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The whale Evolutionary Series
Appearance Taxa Relationships Status Description Image
55.8 ± 0.2 - 33.9 ± 0.1 Ma

Genus:

Skull Pakicetus inachus.jpg
50 Ma

Genus:

Ambulocetus et pakicetus.jpg
46 Ma

Genus:

Kutchicetus BW.jpg
47 Ma

Genus:

41-33 Ma

Genus:

Dorudon atrox Senckenberg.jpg
25 Ma

Genus:

Aetiocetus BW.jpg
40-34 Ma

Genus:

Basilosaurus skeleton.jpg
8-15 Ma

Genus:

Eurhinodelphis longirostris.jpg
26 Ma

Genus:

Ebolusyon ng lahi ng mga Sirenia[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Sirenia Evolutionary Series
Paglitaw Taxa Relasyon Estado Diskripsyon Imaghe
50 Ma

Genus:

Isang sinaunang sirenia.

Dans l'ombre des dinosaures - Pezosiren - 016.jpg
40 Ma

Genus:

Prorastomus BW.jpg

??? Ma

Genus:

48.6–33.9 Ma

Genus:

Ang ninuno ng mga Sinaunang sirenia hanggang sa lahi ng sirenian na nakatira sa katubigan

Eotheroides sp.JPG
??? Ma

Genus:

Halitherium.jpg

Ebolusyon ng mga pinnipedo[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Pinniped Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Relasyon estado Diskripsyon Imahe
21 to 24 Ma

Genus:

Ang sinasabing sinaunang uri ng pinnipedo.

Puijila darwini (fossil).jpg

??? Ma

Genus:

A very basal pinniped. Potamotherium.jpg
24-22 Ma

Genus:

Ang sinaunang lahi ng seal, ngunit mas primitibo pa ang ulo at mga paa nito.

Enaliarctos mealsi.JPG

Ebolusyon of ng mga Kabayo[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The HyracotheriumEquus Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Kaugnayan Status Diskripsyon Imahe
60-45 Ma

Genus:

HyracotheriumVasacciensisLikeHorse.JPG
40-30 Ma

Genus:

Mesohippus Bairdii.jpg
20 Ma

Genus:

Parahippus Cognatus.jpg
17-11 Ma

Genus:

Anchitherium.jpg
12 Ma

Genus:

Pliohippus Pernix.jpg
1.8-0 Ma

Genus:

Img 3372 Me trot.jpg

Ebolusyon ng Sangkatauhan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Human Evolutionary Series
Pag litaw Taxa Kaugnay Estado Diskripsyon Imahe
36-32 Ma

Genus

Ang sinaunang ninuno ng mga unggoy ayon sa mga rekord sa fossil , na itinatayang nabuhay bago mahati sa dalawang uri ang mga unggoy. Basal to both Old and New world monkeys. Primitive traits
  • Smaller canines than later monkeys such as Parapithecus
  • Retains some post-cranial characters seen in prosimians

Derived traits

  • Fused mandibular symphysis
  • Scapula similar to modern squirrel monkeys
  • Low rounded molar cusps rather than high cusps as is seen in tarsiers and strepsirrhine
33 Ma

Genus

A Miocene monkey which bridges the gap between the Eocene ancestors of Old world monkeys and Miocene ancestor of Hominoidea. Tentatively positioned transitional form prior to the Old world monkey/ape split. Primitive traits
  • Retained auditory features similar to Old world monkeys
  • Incapable of true brachiation unlike extant apes
  • Reduced capitular tail, but was proportionally smaller than Apidium

Derived traits

  • Ape-like teeth including broad, flat incisors and sexually dimorphic canines
  • A low sagittal keel and strong temporalis muscles
  • Increased size in the visual cortex
Aegyptopithecus NT.jpg
27-14 Ma

Genus

This primate exhibits very ape-like features like its teeth, but much of its post-cranial remains are more similar to monkeys. Universally accepted to be intermediate between 'ape-like monkeys' such as Aegyptopithecus and later apes including hominids. Primitive traits
  • Monkey-like wrist
  • Narrow, monkey-like illium

Derived traits

  • Completely lacked a fully formed tail
  • 5-Y pattern on lower molar cusps as also seen in hominoids
Proconsul africanus.JPG
13 Ma

Genus:

A European ape which is considered to be the predecessor of the great apes. Some objections have been raised to this fossils status due to its location in Spain, but Pierolapithecus is likely a transitional taxon between generalized apes and the lineage which led to great apes. Pleisomorphic traits
  • Relatively short fingers and walked in a similar quadrupedal fashion like baboons
  • Lacks adaptations for both gibbon-style brachaition as well as derived knuckle-walking like in chimpanzee's and gorilla's

Derived traits

  • Flat, wider rib cage like great apes for tree-climbing
  • The clavicle is large and similar to modern chimps suggesting a dorsally positioned scapula
4.4 Ma

Genus:

Ang isang gubat hominid inangkop sa hayop na may apat na paa nabubuhay sa mga kahoy lokomosyon, ngunit din para sa bipedalism. Intermediate sa pagitan ng huling mga karaniwang ninuno ng chimps at mga kawani na tao, at ang australopithecines. 'Primitive mga ugali'
  • Talino na mas maliit kaysa sa ibang pagkakataon hominids mula sa tungkol sa 300-350 cc
  • Paa thumb ay hindi binawi sa paanan bilang isang 'malaking daliri'
  • Phalanges ay mas mabigat kaysa sa hindi tuwid sa Australopithecus

'Nagmula mga ugali'

  • Nabawasang laki sa canines, gayunpaman mananatili pa rin dimorphic characte
Ardi.jpg
4.4-2.0 Ma

Genus:

Unang kilala genus ng ganap na may dalawang paa apes na kung saan ay marahil minamana sa matatag australopithecus at ang genus tomboy. Intermediate sa pagitan ng patay may apat na paa at may dalawang paa apes. Habang ang relasyon sa pagitan ng ilang mga species ay nire-revise, Australopithecus afarensis ay itinuturing na, sa pamamagitan ng karamihan ng mga eksperto, ang ninuno sa lahat mamaya hominids. Primitibong hitsura
  • Some species retain a sagittal crest
  • kurbada pa ang phalanges, palatandaan na tumitira sa itaas ng mga puno.
  • Semisectorial premolar is present
  • Prognathic face to varying degrees

Pagbabago

  • Fully bipedal as indicated by many features including the knee joint, hips, lumbar curve in the spine, position of the foramen magnum, and feet
  • lumaki ang sukat ng utak nito ng mga 375-500 cc
  • nag babago din ang hitsura ng panga.
Australopithecus africanus - Cast of taung child Face.jpg
2.3-1.4 Ma

Species:

Ang isang maagang pantao kung saan ay ang morphological link sa pagitan ng [[australopithecines at mamaya pantao species. Perpekto intermediate sa pagitan ng maagang hominids at mamaya mga kawani na tao, marahil ay minamana sa mga modernong tao. Primitibong hitsura
  • Pronounced brow ridge
  • Hindi pa sila nakakatayo ng tuwid tulad sa modernong mga tao, gumagamit parin ng kamay para sa pag lalakad.
  • kahit na bahagyang lummit ang hitsura ng mukha, medyo malaki parin ang mgipin ng mga ito.

Derived traits

  • lumaki din ang sukat ng utak nito ng mga 510-800 cc.
  • hindi pa akma ang hitsura ng mga ito sa modernong mga tao.
  • Maaring nakakapag salita na ang mga ito?
  • Sila ang mga gumagamit ng mga kasangkapang bato.
Homo habilis.jpg
2.0-1.0 Ma

Species:

Sila ang pinaka matagumpay na lahi na kung saan ang mga Modernong tao at mga neanderthals. Hinihilalang sila din ang mga unang tao na kumalat at nag tayo ng mga grupo ng pamayanan sa Aprika? Sila ang ninuno ng mga Modernong tao at neanderthals. Primitibong Hitsura
  • Still retains a heavy brow ridge and nuchal torus
  • Hindi parin sila nakakapag salita tulad sa modernong mga tao.
  • Makakapal pa ang mga buto, at malalaki pa ang mga ngipin para sa modernong tao.

Pag babago

  • Mas bilog na ang utak nito, (mga 900-1100 cc) kay sa H. habilis
  • Face is orthognathic compared to H. habilis
  • hinihilalang sila din ay nakakapag grupo sa twing silay nagagaso.
  • Hinihilalang ang lahing ito ang aksidenteng naka diskubre ng Apoy at nakakagamit na din sila ng mga kasangkapan.
Homo erectus tautavelensis.jpg
500 Ka-recent

Species

Tomboy rhodesiensis ay ang agarang ninuno ng modernong mga tao kung saan talaga displaced ang neanderthal s sa Europa at ng isla 'hobbits' ng timog-silangan Asya. H. rhodesiensis umunlad mula sa tomboy erectus tungkol sa kalahati ng isang milyong taon na ang nakaraan ngunit pa rin Pinapanatili ang ilang mga primitive na mga katangian tulad ng medyo makapal na buto at molars mas malaki kaysa sa modernong tao. Minamana sa mga modernong tao. Mga Primitibong hitsura
  • Malaki pa ang mga ngipin
  • Heavy brow ridge
  • Extremely robust build in most groups

Pagbabago

  • Rounder, less broad based cranium
  • Malaki na ang utak, Nakakapag isip na katulad sa modernong mga tao.
Skhul.JPG

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