Tagagamit:Felipe Aira/tl/Gagamitin

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Ang bagong salin sa Tagalog ng sulat sa tanso na halaw sa artikulong "Philippine Leaf" ni Ginoong Hector Santos. Ang pagsalin nito ay batay sa pagiging katunog ng mga salita nito sa kasalukuyang Tagalog ng Cavite at Batangas at maaari pang pag-igihin ng marunong ng Tagalog sa mga kilalang pamantasan. Ang bagong salin mula sa wikang ipinalagay na kawi o matandang wika na maaring pinagmulan ng Tagalog at mga kauri nito dito sa Timog-Silangang Asya. Narito ang talaan ng mga sinaunang salita mula sa KASULATAN SA TANSO Taong 822 na may katumbas ng mga kahulugan nito sa kasulukuyang Tagalog:1. swasti=sumaatin, 2. warsatita=pinakamabuting uri, 3. waisaka=iwaksi, 4. masa=masasama 5. dyotisa=iisang dios natin, 5. caturthi=pinababatid na kautusan 6. kresnapaksa=kinasusulatan ng paksa 7.somawara=sumawala/makalaya 8. tatkala=tanikala 9. sadana=sa danio, 10. lawan dengan na sanak= saklaw dangan at kamag anak ito 11. dibari waradana= di bali wala na ang danio/sa pangyayaring wala na ang danio, 12. wi shuddhapatra=nauwi sa pagsunud sa patakaran, 13. senapati=sanay pati/bihasa at pantas , 14. hwan=huwaran 15. nayaka=nayakag 16. tuhan=tao/tauhan na may katungkulan sa bayan/baranggay 17. urang= tao na naglalakbay at kinakailangan suriin kung anong pakay kung kayat tinawag na urang o uuriin muna 18. dengan dang kaya siha=dangan at may kakayahan siya, 19. shuddha nu diparlappas hutang= sumunod/sumangayon na umalpas sa pagkakautang,20. barjadi=nabayaran/kaukulang upa sa paglilingkod, 21. barjadi ganashakti=nabayaran sa ganang kaniya, 22. walenda=walang inda/walang angal,23. dihadappan=sa harap/sa harapan , 24. bishruta tathapi sadana= pawalan ng bisa ang tanikala ng pagkakaalipin dahil sa danio, 25. sanak=mag anak, 26. kapawaris=pinawi at inalis, 27. dari bhaktinda= madaliang pagpapabatid/mula sa pinagsamang baktuhin o pasanin at tinda o ilako o ipagsabi, 28. diparhulun sang pamegat=paghulug ng bayad sa isang taong may katungkulan o pamagat, 29. cucu = iniukol, 30. syat=sumiyasat,31. syapantaha=sapantaha, 32. pashkat=pasikat, 33. ding ari kamu dyan=hindi naman kayu maaari diyan, 34. ada=idada/ipagsabi, 35. urang barujara=bagong daan na tao/taong kadadaan lamang,36. welung lappas hutang= walang umalpas sa utang, 37. dang=at, 38. ya=kaya 39.ulih-pagsasa ulih/pagbalik ng nahiram o sa dating kalagayan


Palatangkasan – set algebra
Bilnuran – arithmetic
Sukgisan – geometry
Lapya – plane
Siksin – solid
Panandaan – algebra
Tatsihaan – trigonometry
Timbulog – spherical
Tayahan – calculus
Tingirin – differential
Laumin – integral
Palautatan – statistics
Liknayan – physics
Sigwasan – mechanics
Danumsigwasan – hydraulics
Buhagsigwasan – pneumatics
Tigilan – statics
Isigan – dynamics
Initsigan – thermodynamics
Balnian – magnetism
Kapnayan – chemistry
Lahatan – general chem
Uriin – qualitative chem.
Sukatin – quantitative chem. Haying – organic chem.
Dihaying – inorganic chem.
Dagikapnayan – electrochemistry
Haykapnayan – biochemistry
Haynayan – biology
Sipnayan – mathematics
Panakda – numerator
Pamahagi – denominator
Tumbasan – equation
Sanyo – formula
Aligin – variable
Awanggan – infinity
Isakay – monomial
Duhakay – binomial
Talukay – trinomial
Damikay – polynomial
Duyog – ellipse
Tikop – circumference
Gilis – hypotenuse
Tadlong – perpendicular
Pariugat – square root
Hambinging bigat – specific weight
Tigal – inertia
Dantay – impulse
Dagsa – momentum
Habyog – torque
Larang – equilibrium
Gitisig – centripetal force
Basisig – centrifugal force
Dagsin – gravity
Dagisikan – electronics (O.O)
Dagitab – electricity
Saloy – current
Dagisik – electron
Tablay – electric charge
Lulos – bypass
Sunurang kabit – series connection
Agapayang kabit – parallel connection
Salikop – circuit
Tuwirang saloy – DC
Saliding saloy – AC
Sakwil – resistance
Panakwil – resistor
Kasagwilan – resistivity
Lulan – capacitance
Panlulan – capacitor
Dawit – inductance
Panawit – inductor
Dagibalniing liboy – EM waves (ows? -.-;)
Saluyan – conductor
Panghadlang – insulator
Kabtol – switch
Sayad – ground
Laktod – short circuit
Awanging tubo – vacuum tube
Tugoy – oscillation
Tugoysipat – oscilloscope (talaga?)
Pangibayo – amplifier
Dagindas – electrode
Duhandas – diode
Talundas – triode
Alunig – resonance
Dalas – frequency
Libuyhaba – wavelength
Miktinig – microphone
Hatinig – telephone
Malasaluyan – semiconductor
Saligwil – transistor


|group = Tagalog people
Pilipinas |image = |population = Estimated: 26 Million |caption = |regions = Philippines, United States |languages = Tagalog, Filipino and English |religions = Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestants) |related-c = Other Filipino people The Tagalog people (Tgl:Tagalog) is the second largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group. The name Tagalog comes from the native term tagailog, meaning 'people living in the river banks'. The prefix taga- means 'coming from' or 'native of', while the word ilog means 'river'. Transliterated, tagailog means 'coming from the river' or 'native of the river', with 'the' being implied.

The Tagalogs are the most widespread in the Philippines. They form a majority in the provinces of Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Cavite, Bulacan, Laguna, Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Quezon, Camarines Norte, Marinduque, and Rizal. Other provinces with significant Tagalog populations include the provinces of Palawan, Tarlac, and in Zambales.

Demographics[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Tagalogs number about 15,876,000 making them the largest Filipino ethnic group. The origin of the Tagalogs is still disputed, whether their cultivating homeland was in (what is now) Taal, Batangas, or ascending from the south where their closer linguistic kinsmen (the Visayans) dwelled. Nonetheless, the Tagalogs (like other aboriginal Philippine ethnicities) are likely the descendants of Austronesian-speaking immigrants from prehistoric Taiwan (see Taiwanese aboriginals). Tagalogs speak the Tagalog language, with many dialectal variations, although all Tagalog dialects are considered to be mutually comprehensible to each other. Tagalog people mostly of Merdika and mixed Merdika and Spanish blood in Ternate, Cavite speak Ternateño dialect of Chabacano. The main religion of Tagalogs is Christianity, mostly Roman Catholicism as well as Protestantism. There are also some Muslims. There are many Tagalog Mestizos. Many are a mix of Spanish, Chinese or American descent.

Culture[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Tagalog culture of the Pre-Hispanic times was totally different from its forms today. From a former tattooing tribe, the Tagalog culture grew steadily to accept foreign, especially Hispanic, Chinese, and American cultural influences, and their culture today remains the backbone and the representative of all other Filipino cultures. Traditionally, the Tagalogs are for the most part agriculturalists, although there are some who engage in fishing. Tagalogs have a very strict adherence to conduct and respect, and this is exemplified by practices and their language structure. Tagalogs are also depicted by examples of bravery and courage, as manifested by historical events, e.g., the Philippine Revolution and World War II.

Tagalogs are also focused on food preparation and culinary activities. Women (and sometimes, men) are trained early on to become culinary experts. This is depicted in lavish celebrations during Fiestas and gatherings.

History[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Although the present centre of the Tagalog Culture and Tagalog people is Manila, Batangas, being its birthplace, is still the 'Heartland of the Tagalog Culture'. Most of the origins of the Tagalog people is based on oral tradition. Because even if they were literate and had a written tradition before the Spaniards arrived, they wrote their ideas on perishable leaves and branches.

According to the Maragtas Legend, a Borneo (a part of the former Srivijaya empire) was one inhabited by 11 Datus who elect from among themselves their supreme ruler. In around 1250, a certain Datu Makatunaw was elected Sultan over the Bornean Sultanate. But his ascent meant that he was able to rule the island with tyranny. He grabbed from his subjects not only their belongings but even their wives.

He was even planning to wage a war to conquer the nearby islands but the other 10 datus did not agree to his direction. To prevent the war, the 10 peace loving Datus, lead by Datu Puti sailed northward where they reached the Island now known as Panay. Here, they met a group of Aeta led by Marikudo. Datu Puti managed to convince them to give his fellow balangay members a place to settle.

The Aeta Chiefstain agreed in return of the golden sukud which Datu Puti wore. There he left the three of his fellow Datus Sumakwel, Bankaya and Paiburong who ruled the Dominions of Hantik (later Antique), Aklan and Irong-Irong (later Iloilo) respectively. These three Dominions formed the Madia-as Confederation. Datu Puti then sailed further North and left the Confederation under the rule of Datu Sumakwel.

He, together with the other six Datus (namely Datu Balensusa, Datu Domangsil, Datu Bankaya, Datu Paduhinog, Datu Dumalogdog and Datu Lubay) found their settlement at the place of many rivers. And they called themselves Taga-Ilog and later, corrupted it to Tagalog. This settlement is now submerged under the mythical Taal Lake. Before, the place that is now called Batangas is the centre of a thriving civilization.

Although paganistic, the first Tagalogs had a religion. Datu Puti was not only a founder of a nation, he also founded Bathalismo. It is believed that there is a Supreme Being called Bathala (from the Sanskit Bathara, god) and many other lesser deities. They also had a very high respect to women, as women are not only allowed to inherit lands, they are allowed to be the matriarch of their clans. And although the office of the Babaylan is open to both sexes, it is generally left to the women. And when a man is chosen to be a babaylan, he will be clad as a woman.

The pre-hispanic Tagalogs divided their dominion into three centres. Tanauan became the centre of governance for as its name suggest (from TANAW, to see) one can easily see the whole dominion from there. The centre of commerce was in Balayan, as since the 10th Century, it was already an established Chinese Trade Route. And finally, the centre of worship was in Lipa. And when the Tagalog was conveted into Christianity, the Archdiocese of Lipa remained to be an important religious centre. (see also Batangas History)

However, Datu Puti still dreamt to free his brothers that were left in Borneo so he left the dominion under the rulership of Datu Balensusa and Datu Domangsil. The other four Datus divided the rest of the dominion, which included the present day provinces of Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Quezon, Aurora, Bataan, Mindoro, Marinduque, and some parts of Romblon and Palawan, among themselves.

It was also speculated that the Kingdom included the areas of Metropolitan Manila, Bulacan, Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac and Zambales. Today, these areas are still well populated by the Tagalogs.

When Datu Balensusa entered immortality, the Kingdom which he personally ruled was inherited by Datu Kumintang. Thus, the Kingdom of Kumintang was established. It was composed of the undisputed Tagalog Kingdom, while the Northern part was ruled by the heirs of other Datus.

Constant trade with the Chinese made the Northern Tagalogs familiar with Hinduism and Islam. In fact, when Miguel López de Legazpi came to Manila, he found an Islam community under the rule of Raja Lakandula. On the other hand, the Southern Tagalogs continued to be a thriving community, which had closed contact with the Chinese.

The Tagalogs learn very fast, when the Spaniards conquered Manila, the Tagalogs became completely Christianised in less than half a century. This was despite the great mountains that divided their territories. It was said that when Legazpi came to Manila, he was received well by the Tagalogs under the leadership of Raja Lakandula. This showed that the Tagalogs were well versed in diplomacy. However, when the group of Raja Sulayman felt that their honour was being threathened, they showed great bravery in war. Unfortunately, the group of Sulayman was defeated by the Spaniards and the Tagalogs became subject to the Spanish Crown. The people were subjected to forced labour.

A number of Philippine national heroes are Tagalog. The Tagalogs staged the most numerous revolts against Spanish colonization, and were also among the earliest. One such revolt was that of Tagalog Apolinario de la Cruz (Hermano Pule), which was religious in orientation. Jose Rizal, the Philippine national hero from Calamba Laguna, is Tagalog-Chinese.

In 1898, most leaders of the Philippine Revolution were also Tagalogs, including the first Philippine president Emilio Aguinaldo, Apolinario Mabini, Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, among others.

Since Aguinaldo, four other Tagalogs assumed the presidency: Manuel L. Quezon (who was a Spanish-mestizo with mostly Tagalog native ancestry), Jose P. Laurel, Corazon Aquino partly of Tagalog descent, from her maternal side) and Joseph Estrada. Early Philippine history has always been dominated by the struggles and triumphs of the Tagalog people and the Tagalogs came to dominate the present Philippine economy and politics. Tagalog prominence in the national character is well-founded, as Philippine history has always shown Tagalogs to be in the frontlines, persevering and always forwarding the Filipino spirit.


呂宋國
Lúsong
1279–1571
Luzon Empire (呂宋國)
Kabisera Tondo (東都)
Pamahalaan Monarchy
Kasaysayan
 - Fall of Nan Song (南宋國) 1279
 - Conquest by Spain 1571

Luzon Empire (Tsino: ; pinyin: Lǚsòng Guó) was an ancient empire once located around the Manila Bay region of the Philippines. The capital was Tondo (Tsino: ; pinyin: dōngdū) with its territories occupying most of what is now Central Luzon, extending from the delta region that surrounds Manila Bay, all the way into the interior along head waters of the surrounding rivers in the provinces of Pampanga and Bulacan.

Origins[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The History of the Song Dynasty (宋史) was compiled under Mongol Prime Minister Toktoghan (脫脫) in 1345 AD. In it, the Mongols recount the final and complete destruction of Nan Song (南宋國, "Southern Song Empire") (1127-1279), where in 1279 AD:

  • The Mongol Yuan Fleet finally crushed the Southern Song Navy at the Naval Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役).
  • The loyal Minister of the Left Liu Xiufu committed suicided with last Southern Song Emperor, the child Songdi Bing (宋帝昺) rather than be captured by the Mongols.
  • The Grand Admiral Zhang Shijie (張世傑) escaped with his grand armada but were eventually destroyed by a typhoon while crossing the seas.[1]
A Song Dynasty warship with trebuchet. From Wujing Zongyao, 1044.

Alternative sources refute the accounts of the destruction of Zhang Shijie's grand armada as nothing more than Mongol propaganda since there were no eyewitness accounts of its destruction nor were there traces left of its remains.[2] For most historians, the fate of Zhang Shijie and his grand armada remains a mystery.

Emperor Bing, the last Song emperor.

Contemporary Chinese historians based in Guangdong are now even questioning the Mongolian accounts regarding Emperor Bing's death. Even though Mongol sources claimed that the corpse of the last emperor has been found washed ashore along the coast of Shenzen, his actual grave is yet to be found.[3] Cantonese folklore expressed in its traditional opera narrates an alternative account where the loyal Minister Liu Xiufu tricked the Mongols by committing suicide with his own son disguised as the young emperor. The real emperor was said to have been smuggled out of the scene of battle by Grand Admiral Zhang Shijie, who will eventually return to redeem the empire from the invaders.[4] The Travels of Marco Polo also recounts the escape of the last Song emperor across the ocean.[5]

Some contemporary Philippine historians[6] agree with their Chinese counterparts, and are willing to speculate further that after the fall of Nan Song (南宋國, "Southern Song Empire"), Zhang Shijie's fleet and the last Song emperor may have escaped to pre-colonial Philippines and established the Luzon Empire or the Lesser Song Empire (呂宋國).

Despite the conjectures regarding its origins, the Ming Annals (明史) are clear on the actual existence of the Luzon Empire. It records that in 1373 AD, the Luzon Empire sent its first among the many succeeding diplomatic mission to the Ming Empire (大明國) (1368-1644), accompanied by the embassies of India's Chola Empire.[7] The Ming chroniclers added the character for "kingdom" or "empire" (Tsino: ; pinyin: Guó) after Luzon (, Lǚsòng),[8] indicating that it was once an independent and sovereign kingdom. Her rulers were acknowledged as kings () and not mere chieftains.[8] The Ming Empire treated the Luzon Empire more favorably than Japan by allowing it to trade with China once every two years, while Japan was only allowed to trade once every 11 years.[7]

Golden Age[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Luzon Empire flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty when China closed it's doors to foreign trade. Foreigners were forbidden to send trade missions to China. Chinese merchants were likewise forbidden to trade beyond the borders of the Ming Empire. Yet clandestinely, merchants from Guangzhou and Quanzhou regularly delivered trade goods to Tondo. Luzon merchants then traded them all across Southeast Asia and were considered "Chinese" by the people they encountered.[9]

Statue of Luzon Sukezaemon at Sakai Citizens' Hall.

The Portuguese who came to Asia much earlier than the Spaniards recorded their encounter with the inhabitants of the Luzon Empire and called them Luçoes.[10] The Portuguese records that the Luzon Empire played an active role in the politics and economy of 16th century Southeast Asia.[10]

The Luzon Empire's powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th century East Asia was felt especially strongly by Japan. Japanese merchants often had to resort to piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu (島井宗室) and Kamiya Soutan (神屋宗湛) established branch offices in the Luzon Empire. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon (呂宋助左衛門), went as far as to change his surname from Naya (納屋) to Luzon (呂宋). It was at about this time that the Luzon Empire was also referred to as Gintu ( "The Land of Gold") or Suarnabumi by its neighbors.

Decline[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Tondo (Tsino: ; pinyin: dōngdū, "Eastern Capital") has always been the traditional capital of the Luzon Empire. Its rulers were addressed as panginuan or Panginoon (主, "lords")[11], anak banua (天皇, "son of heaven") or lakandula (宮命, "lord of the palace").[12] During the reign of Bolkiah (1485-1521) the Kingdom of Brunei decided to break the Luzon Empire's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing the city state of Maynilad (Manila) as a Burneian satellite[13]. A new dynasty under the Salalila was established in Manila to challenge the House of Lakandula in Tondo.[14] Another kingdom, named Namayan, was established as a confederation of barangays that began to peak in 1175 and extended from Manila Bay to Laguna de Bay. The royal capital of the kingdom was built in Sapa, known today as Santa Ana.

When the Spaniards arrived in 1571, the unity of the Luzon Empire was already threatened by the uneasy alliance of the "Three Kings of Luzon": the Rajah Matanda of Sapa, the Lakandula of Tondo, and Rajah Suliman III, the rajah muda or "crown prince" of Maynila and laxamana or "grand admiral" of the Macabebe Armada. Powerful states like Lubao, Betis and Macabebe became bold enough to challenge the traditional leadership of Tondo and Maynila.[15] The Spaniards took advantage of the chaos, played favorites with one ruler and pitted them against the other (Divide et Impera), specially upon giving the message by Martin de Goiti to Legazpi about the kingdom of Maynlilad.

The Fall[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Saint James the Muslim Slayer, Spain's patron saint.

Rumor has it that the Spaniards had poisoned the Rajah Matanda of Maynila so as to win the support of the Lakandula of Tondo. Disregarding the legitimacy of Rajah Suliman III as rajah muda, the Spaniards installed the child Rajah Bago[16] as the new king of Maynila.

In 1571, Rajah Suliman III, rajah muda of Maynila and laxamana of the Macabebe armada, challenged the Spaniards to a naval battle at the estuary of Bangkusay. The Spaniards were able to crush Rajah Suliman III and his Macabebe armada due to the lack of support from the other rulers of the empire. The Luzon Empire was quickly overtaken by the Spaniards. Its territories were carved out and distributed as spoils among themselves. The province of Pampanga was the first Spanish colonial province carved out of the Luzon Empire[17] and the people who spoke one language from Tondo[18] to the rest of Pampanga are now called Kapampangans.

After the collapse of the Luzon Empire, the Spaniards were finally able to create their first colony in Asia, the Philippines, named in honor of the Spanish King Philip II. The name Luzon was given to the entire northern Philippine island, in memory of the former Luzon Empire.[kailangan ng sanggunian]

Aftershocks[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The Luzon Empire was said to have finally ended in 1571 according to Spanish records. Yet the fortified cities of Lubao and Betis continued to thrive as independent principalities of the Luzon Empire till 1572.[19]

In 1575, the Spaniards executed the child king Rajah Bago and his cousin Lumanlan.[20] The Lakandula of Tondo also died in the same year.

In 1586, the Spaniards crushed the revolt of former nobles of the Luzon Empire in the province of Pampanga. The revolt was based in Candaba under the leadership of Don Nicolas Managuete and Don Juan de Manila.[21]

In 1588, the Spaniards crushed the revolt of the nobles of the Luzon Empire in Tondo.[22] It was led by the descendants of the Lakandula and their kinsmen with the assistance of Japanese merchants. Many of them were executed or exiled and their properties confiscated.

In 1590, the King Sattha of Cambodia sent two elephants to the "King of Luzon" through his Portuguese ambassador and requested the Luzon Empire's assistance in their battle against Siam.[23] In the same year, the "lords" of the Luzon Empire were said to have been corresponding with the Taikou-sama of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, begging assistance to help liberate the Luzon Empire from the Spaniards. But Hideyoshi responded but upon preparing the invading force to Philippines, Taiwan and Korea, Hideyoshi died of old age.[24]

The Rulers of Maynilad and other barangays surrounding the old Luzon empire became the ancestors of the Ilustrado Class. Since Spanish Rulers appointed them to rule over the natives as Cabeza de Barangay. Their descendants survived until today.

Its Recognition in Philippine History[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

The History of the Luzon Empire, specially its Chinese presence, is seldom heard in mainstream Philippine history since it focused on Luzon's malayan and islamic past, like the "Laguna Copperplate" Inscription, the kingdom of Namayan, and the kingdom of Maynilad.

Notes[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  1. History of the Song Dynasty {宋史)
  2. Giles
  3. History of Shenzen
  4. Guangdong Tourism Council
  5. "But as for the King her husband, he never more did quit the isles of the sea to which he had fled, but died there." End of Chapter LXV Mga gawa ni Marco Polo sa Proyektong Gutenberg
  6. Pangilinan, et al on the initial translations of DongXi Yanggao (東西洋考, Book 5.)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ming Annals (明史)
  8. 8.0 8.1 A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans (東西洋考)
  9. Conquistas
  10. 10.0 10.1 Scott
  11. Conquistas
  12. Henson
  13. Scott
  14. Henson
  15. Conquistas
  16. Santiago
  17. Henson
  18. Loarca
  19. Conquistas
  20. Santiago
  21. Licuanan & Mira
  22. Santiago
  23. Morga
  24. Gregorio Zaide

References[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

  • History of Shenzen compiled by the Shenzen Local Tourism Office, 2003.
  • Giles, Herbert Allen, A Chinese Biographical Dictionary (1898). Reprinted by Cheng Wen Publishing, Taipei, 1975.
  • Henson, Mariano A. 1965. The Province of Pampanga and Its Towns: A.D. 1300-1965. 4th ed. revised. Angeles City: By the author.
  • Licuanan, Virginia Benitez & Jose Llavador Mira, The Philippines Under Spain: a compilation and translation of original documents, Book IV (1583-1590), The National Trust for Historical and Cultural Preservation of the Philippines, Quezon City, 1993.
  • Loarca, Miguel de, Relación de las Yslas Filipinas, Blair and Robertson volume 5, page 34 – 187.
  • Morga, Antonio de, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, obra publicada en Méjico el año de 1609 nuevamente sacada a luz y anotada por José Rizal y precedida de un prólogo del Prof. Fernando Blumentritt, Impresión al offset de la Edición Anotada por Rizal, Paris 1890. Manila: Historico Nacional, 1991
  • Pires, Tomé, A suma oriental de Tomé Pires e o livro de Francisco Rodriguez:Leitura e notas de Armando Cortesão [1512 - 1515], translated and edited by Armando Cortesao, Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1944.
  • Santiago, Luciano P.R., The Houses of Lakandula, Matanda, and Soliman [1571-1898]:Genealogy and Group Identity, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 18 [1990]
  • San Agustin, Gaspar de, Conquistas de las Islas Philipinas 1565-1615, Translated by Luis Antonio Mañeru, 1st bilingual ed [Spanish and English], published by Pedro Galende, OSA: Intramuros, Manila, 1998
  • Scott, William Henry, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994
  • Scott, William Henry, Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History, Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1984
  • Yule, Henry (Ed.), The Travels of Marco Polo, Dover Publications, New York, 1983
  • Zaide, Gregorio, The History of the Philippine Islands, 1985

External links[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]


Folk Legends[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Folk legend has it though, that the place-name "Basilan" may have been derived from a variety of sources. One of which points to it having been named after Datu Bantilan, the 20th Sultan of Sulu, who established a naval base on the island's southwestern coast. (See History of Basilan)

Yet another very creative "folk" legend based on religious sources dates the naming of Basilan to about 600 BC, during the reign of Zedekiah, King of Judah. A group of Israelites (descendants of the tribe of Joseph) left Jerusalem for a New Promised Land. They were supposedly led by Lehi, (of the tribe of Manasseh), a visionary man, his wife Sarah, and their four (4) sons, Laman, Lemuel, Nephi, and Sam. Lehi invited his cousin, Ishmael (of the tribe of Ephraim), his wife, his sons and their wives, and their daughters, who were taken as wives by Lehi's sons. With them also came Zoram, the Keeper of the Records of the Jews (The Torah, the five books of Moses). They traveled south across the Arabian Peninsula, passing Mt. Sinai (Arabic: Jebel Musa or Mountain of Moses), the mountain where Moses supposedly received God's laws, reaching present day Oman.

With the ability to make tools, they used these tools to cut timber from the mountains and built a ship in quest of the Promised Land, crossed the Arabian Sea, passing the Indian Ocean, Moroni Island, towards the Malacca Straits, passing thru an island they called Samathar (Sam entreated his brethren here - Sumatra), a place they called Jah Karath (covenant with Jehovah - Jakarta), Singapore, the South China Sea, and reached a group of islands they called Sinim (Sulu Archipelago). They stopped-over in these islands for replenishments. They called an island, Sug (South Island - Sulu, translated into Spanish as Jolo).

Going northward, they reached a beautiful island full of precious iron ores, fruits and timber. Lehi discovered a gentle and beautiful people thriving on the island. They called the Island, Basal-allah (New Land Bountiful - Basilan). Lehi's group were welcomed and feted like royalty by the natives. Lehi was crowned Raha Lahay, and his sons, Lakan Napay, Lakan Laman, Lakan Lamah (Lemuel, a weakling), etc. All the men were crowned lakans (princes) and the women were crowned dayang-dayang (princesses). Lehi named the different parts of the Islands, thus: Southern part, Lehi called it Mal-yusuf (Maluso) in honor of his ancestor, Joseph; the Northern part, Pa Sara-ngan, (the way to Sarah's name (or place) - Pasangan, now Isabela); eastern part, Laman-tian (Laman's desire - Lamitan); a small island, Mal-Lemuel (Island of the weak Lemuel - Malamawi); a hilly portion, Panun-Zoram, in honor of Zoram (Picnic Grove - Panunsulan); a small town, Maha-Lahay (royal town of Raha Lahay - Mahayahay). The Lehites taught the natives how to extract ore and form metals to make tools, weapons, and jewelry. They also taught them the ways of peace, love, and harmony. They taught them how to weave cloth, how to preserve food, and build houses made of lumber, bamboo and nipa thatches, according to the ways of the Israelites.


They sailed on northward and named places and islands: Samboangan (in honor of Sam -Zamboanga), Sugbu (island north of Sug - Cebu); further north, Nasugbu (Batangas, north of Sugbu). They traveled westward towards the silence of many waters and called it Mifratz Lamon(Lamon Bay) and a calm sea (Pacific ocean); naming places as they go. The sons of Lehi named an island after their father, Lehi-teh (Lehi's island of the east - Leyte). Lehi named an adjacent island after his son, Sam, Sam Arkath (Sam, the beloved son - Samar). They named a small island Lima Zohar (weak supply of water, like Lemuel - Limasawa). Finally, the rich south-central coast of Mindanao island was called Sara-ngan (Sarah's name (or place) - Sarangani). Looking back at the beautiful islands of beautiful people, Lehi named the whole group of islands, Sinim (Pearl Islands - now reduced to the island group west of Basilan - Pilas - nativized from the Spanish "Perlas", the island group where the legendary native chieftain who defeated Ferdinand Magellan, Lapu-Lapu, is widely believed to be buried).