Pumunta sa nilalaman

Siryo (elemento)

Mula sa Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya
(Idinirekta mula sa Cerium)
Cerium, 58Ce
Cerium
Pronunciation /ˈsɪəriəm/ (SEER-ee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Ce)
  • 140.116±0.001
  • 140.12±0.01 (pinaikli)[1][2]
Cerium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Ce

Th
lanthanumceriumpraseodymium
Atomic number (Z)58
Groupn/a
Period6
Block  f-block
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2[3]
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolido
Melting point1068 K ​(795 °C, ​1463 °F)
Boiling point3716 K ​(3443 °C, ​6229 °F)
Density (at 20° C)β-Ce: 6.689 g/cm3
γ-Ce: 6.769 g/cm3[4]
when liquid (at m.p.)6.55 g/cm3
Heat of fusion5.46 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization398 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.94 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1992 2194 2442 2754 3159 3705
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1, +2, +3, +4 (isang katamtamang panimulang oksido)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.12
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 534.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1050 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1949 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 181.8 pm
Covalent radius204±9 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Mga linyang espektral ng cerium
Other properties
Crystal structureβ-Ce: ​double hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) (hP4)
Lattice constants
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for β-Ce: cerium
a = 0.36811 nm
c = 1.1857 nm (at 20 °C)[4]
Crystal structureγ-Ce: ​face-centered cubic (fcc) (cF4)
Lattice constant
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for γ-Ce: cerium
a = 0.51612 nm (at 20 °C)[4]
Thermal expansionβ-Ce: 6.1×10−6/K
γ-Ce: 6.1×10−6/K (at 20 °C)[4]
Thermal conductivity11.3 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivityβ-Ce, poly: 828 nΩ⋅m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[5]
Molar magnetic susceptibilityβ-Ce: +2450.0×10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[6]
Young's modulusγ-Ce: 33.6 GPa
Shear modulusγ-Ce: 13.5 GPa
Bulk modulusγ-Ce: 21.5 GPa
Speed of sound thin rod2100 m/s (at 20 °C)
Poisson ratioγ-Ce: 0.24
Mohs hardness2.5
Vickers hardness210–470 MPa
Brinell hardness186–412 MPa
CAS Number7440-45-1
History
Namingafter dwarf planet Ceres, itself named after Roman deity of agriculture Ceres
DiscoveryMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger (1803)
First isolationCarl Gustaf Mosander (1838)
Isotopes of cerium
Main isotopes[7] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
134Ce synth 3.16 d ε 134La
136Ce 0.186% stable
138Ce 0.251% stable
139Ce synth 137.640 d ε 139La
140Ce 88.4% stable
141Ce synth 32.501 d β 141Pr
142Ce 11.1% stable
143Ce synth 33.039 h β 143Pr
144Ce synth 284.893 d β 144Pr
Kategorya Kategorya: Cerium
| references

Ang Seryo o Cerium ay isang elementong kimikal na may simbolong Ce at bilang atomikong  58. Ito ay isang malambot, mapilak, at duktilong metal na madaling nag-ooksido sa hangin. Ito ay pinangalan sa unanong planeta na Ceres (na mismong ipinangalan kay Ceres na Diyosang Romano ng agrikultura). Ang seryo ang pinakasagana sa mga elementong bihirang mundo na bumubuo ng mga 0.0046% ng kortesa ng mundo sa timbang. Ito ay matatagpuan sa isang bilang ng mga mineral na ang pinakamahala ang monazite at bastnasite. Ang mga pangkalakalan (commercial) na aplikasyon ng seryo ay marami kabilang bilang mga katalista, aditibo sa panggatong upang mabawasn ang mga emisyon at sa salamit at mga enamel upang baguhin ang mga kulay nito. Ang oksidong seryo ay isang mahalagang bahagi ng mga pulbong pangkinis ng salamat at mga phospor na ginagamit sa mga screen at mga ilaw na flouroscent. Ito ay ginagamit rin sa "flint"(aktuwal na ferrocerium) ng mga lighter.

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang wikitext]

  1. "Standard Atomic Weights: Cerium" (sa wikang Ingles). CIAAW. 1995.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  2. Prohaska, Thomas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Benefield, Jacqueline; Böhlke, John K.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ding, Tiping; Dunn, Philip J. H.; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Meijer, Harro A. J. (2022-05-04). "Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry (sa wikang Ingles). doi:10.1515/pac-2019-0603. ISSN 1365-3075.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  3. Ground levels and ionization energies for the neutral atoms, NIST
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Arblaster, John W. (2018). Selected Values of the Crystallographic Properties of Elements. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. ISBN 978-1-62708-155-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  5. Lide, D. R., pat. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (ika-86th (na) edisyon). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  6. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  7. Kondev, F. G.; Wang, M.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Audi, G. (2021). "The NUBASE2020 evaluation of nuclear properties" (PDF). Chinese Physics C. 45 (3): 030001. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/abddae.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)