Boron

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Boron, 5B
Boron mNACTEC.jpg
boron (β-rhombohedral)[1]
Boron
Bigkas sa Ingles /ˈbɔːrɒn/ (BOR-on)
Alotropiyaα-, β-rhombohedral, β-tetragonal (and more)
Hitsurablack-brown
Pamantayang atomikong timbang Ar°(B)
  • [10.80610.821]
  • 10.81±0.02 (pinaikli)[2]
Boron sa talahanayang peryodiko
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
-

B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
Atomikong bilang (Z)5
Pangkatpangkat 13 (grupong boro)
Peryodoperyodo 2
Bloke  p-bloke
Konpigurasyon ng elektron[He] 2s2 2p1
Mga elektron bawat kapa2, 3
Katangiang pisikal
Pase sa STPsolid
Punto ng pagkatunaw2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
Punto ng pagkulo4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Densidad kapag likido (sa m.p.)2.08 g/cm3
Init ng pusyon50.2 kJ/mol
Init ng baporisasyon480 kJ/mol
Molar na kapasidad ng init11.087 J/(mol·K)
Presyon ng singaw
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Katangiang atomiko
Mga estado ng oksidasyon−5, −1, 0,[3] +1, +2, +3[4][5] (isang katamtamang asidikong oksido)
ElektronegatibidadEskala ni Pauling: 2.04
Mga enerhiyang ionisasyon
  • (marami pa)
Radyong atomikoemperiko: 90 pm
Radyong Kobalente84±3 pm
Radyong Van der Waals192 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Mga linyang espektral ng boron
Ibang katangian
Likas na paglitawprimordiyal
Kayarian ng krystalrhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Bilis ng tunog manipis na bara16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Termal na pagpapalawak(β form) 5–7[6] µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)
Termal na konduktibidad27.4 W/(m⋅K)
Elektrikal na resistibidad~106  Ω⋅m (at 20 °C)
Magnetikong pagsasaayosdiamagnetic[7]
Eskala ni Mohs sa katigasan~9.5
Bilang ng CAS7440-42-8
Kasaysayan
PagkakatuklasJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[8] (30 June 1808)
Unang pagbubukodHumphry Davy[9] (9 July 1808)
Pangunahing isotopo ng boron
Iso­topo Abudansya Half-life (t1/2) Paraan ng pagkabulok Produkto
10B 19.9(7)%* Ang 10B ay tumatagal sa may 5 neutron[10]
11B 80.1(7)%* Ang 11B ay tumatagal sa may 6 neutrons[10]
  • Boron-10 content may be as low as 19.1% and as
    high as 20.3% in natural samples. Boron-11 is
    the remainder in such cases.
    [11]
Kategorya Kategorya: Boron

Ang boro (Ingles: boron) ay isang elementong kimikal sa talahanayang peryodiko na sinasagisag ng simbolong B at nagtataglay ng atomikong bilang 5.

May atomikong bigat na 10.118, punto ng pagkatunaw na 2,300oC, nagkakaroon ng sublimasyon sa 2,550oC, may espesipikong grabidad na 2.34 (anyong kristalina), at balensiyang 3) ay isang hindi metalikong elemento na malambot at kakulay ng kape, at nasa anyong amorpus o kristalina. Nakukuha ang mga ito mula sa kerito at boraks. Naihiwalay ito nina Humphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac at Louis Jacques Thénard[13] noong 1808 sa pamamagitan ng reaksiyon ng asidong boriko at ng potasyo. Tinawag ito ni Davy bilang boracium.[14] Nagagamit ang elementong ito para sa paggawa ng mga pampasibad na kemikal, sa mga pampailaw, panggasgas, at maging para sa aloy na matitigas.[13]

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang source]

  1. Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
  2. "Standard Atomic Weights: Boron". CIAAW. 2009.
  3. Braunschweig, H.; Dewhurst, R. D.; Hammond, K.; Mies, J.; Radacki, K.; Vargas, A. (2012). "Ambient-Temperature Isolation of a Compound with a Boron-Boron Triple Bond". Science. 336 (6087): 1420–2. Bibcode:2012Sci...336.1420B. doi:10.1126/science.1221138. PMID 22700924. S2CID 206540959.
  4. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF" (PDF). J. Molecular Spectroscopy. 170 (1): 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058.
  5. Melanie Schroeder. Eigenschaften von borreichen Boriden und Scandium-Aluminium-Oxid-Carbiden (PDF) (sa wikang Aleman). pa. 139.
  6. Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: mga may-akda (link)
  7. Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF). CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. {{cite book}}: Ang |author= ay may generic na pangalan (tulong)
  8. Gay Lussac, J.L. and Thenard, L.J. (1808) "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique," Annales de chimie [later: Annales de chemie et de physique], vol. 68, pp. 169–174.
  9. Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 99: 33–104.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Nakuha noong 2008-09-21.
  11. Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters. 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219.
  12. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF" (PDF). J. Molecular Spectroscopy. 170: 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: mga may-akda (link)
  13. 13.0 13.1 Gaboy, Luciano L. Boron - Gabby's Dictionary: Praktikal na Talahuluganang Ingles-Filipino ni Gabby/Gabby's Practical English-Filipino Dictionary, GabbyDictionary.com.
  14. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1933). "XII. Other Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium: Beryllium, Boron, Silicon and Aluminum". The Discovery of the Elements. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education. ISBN 0-7661-3872-0.