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Karbon

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Para sa ibang gamit, tingnan ang Karbon (paglilinaw).
Carbon, 6C
Graphite (left) and diamond (right), two allotropes of carbon
Carbon
Allotropesgrapito, diyamante at marami pa (tingnan ang mga alotropo ng karbon)
Appearance
  • graphite: black, metallic-looking
  • diamond: clear
Standard atomic weight Ar°(C)
  • [12.009612.0116]
  • 12.011±0.002 (pinaikli)[1][2]
Carbon in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


C

Si
boroncarbonnitrogen
Atomic number (Z)6
Group14
Period2
Block  p-block
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell2, 4
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolido
Sublimation point3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density (near r.t.)graphite: 2.266 g/cm3[3][4]
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g/cm3
Triple point4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[5][6]
Heat of fusiongraphite: 117 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacitygraphite: 8.517 J/(mol·K)
diamond: 6.155 J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1,[7] +2, +3,[8] +4[9] (isang katamtamang asidikong oksido)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radiussp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals radius170 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Mga linyang espektral ng carbon
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordiyal
Crystal structuregraphite: ​simple hexagonal (hP4)
Lattice constants
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: carbon
a = 246.14 pm
c = 670.94 pm
(at 20 °C)[3]
Crystal structurediamond: ​face-centered diamond-cubic (cF8)
Lattice constant
Diamond cubic crystal structure for diamond: carbon
a = 356.707 pm
(at 20 °C)[3]
Thermal expansiondiamond: 0.8 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)[10]
Thermal conductivitygraphite: 119–165 W/(m⋅K)
diamond: 900–2300 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivitygraphite: 7.837 µΩ⋅m[11]
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[12]
Molar magnetic susceptibilitydiamond: −5.9×10−6 cm3/mol[13]
Young's modulusdiamond: 1050 GPa[10]
Shear modulusdiamond: 478 GPa[10]
Bulk modulusdiamond: 442 GPa[10]
Speed of sound thin roddiamond: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Poisson ratiodiamond: 0.1[10]
Mohs hardnessgraphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS Number
  • atomic carbon: 7440-44-0
  • graphite: 7782-42-5
  • diamond: 7782-40-3
History
DiscoveryEgyptians and Sumerians[14] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier[15] (1789)
Isotopes of carbon
Main isotopes Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
11C synth 20.34 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% stable
13C 1.06% stable
14C 1 ppt (11012) 5.70×103 y β 14N
Kategorya Kategorya: Carbon
| references

Ang carbono (Ingles: carbon) ay isang elementong kimikal sa talahanayang peryodiko na sinasagisag ng simbolong C at nagtataglay ng atomikong bilang 6.

Matatagpuan ang karbon sa lahat ng organikong buhay at ang batayan ng organikong kimika. May interesadong katangiang kimikal ang hindi metal na elementong ito na maaaring ikawi sa sarili nito at sa malawak na iba't ibang mga elemento, binubuo ang halos 10 milyong mga kompuwesto. Kapag sinama sa oksihena, binubuo ang dioksido karbono (carbon dioxide) na napakahalaga para sa paglago ng isang halaman. Kapag sinama sa idroheno, binubuo ito ng mga iba't ibang mga kompuwesto na tinatawag na mga idrokarburo (hydrocarbons) na mahalaga para sa industriya sa anyo ng mga fossil fuel (panggatong fossil). Kapag pinagsama sa parehong oksihena at idroheno, bumubuo ito ng mga iba't ibang mga kompuwesto kabilang ang mga matatabang asido, na mahalaga sa buhay, at mga ester, na nabigigay lasa sa maraming mga prutas. Karaniwang ginagamit sa radyoaktibong pagtataya ang karbon-14 na isotope.

Mga sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang wikitext]

  1. "Standard Atomic Weights: Carbon" (sa wikang Ingles). CIAAW. 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  2. Prohaska, Thomas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Benefield, Jacqueline; Böhlke, John K.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ding, Tiping; Dunn, Philip J. H.; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Meijer, Harro A. J. (2022-05-04). "Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry (sa wikang Ingles). doi:10.1515/pac-2019-0603. ISSN 1365-3075.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Arblaster, John W. (2018). Selected Values of the Crystallographic Properties of Elements. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. ISBN 978-1-62708-155-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  4. Lide, D. R., pat. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (ika-86th (na) edisyon). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  5. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. 14 (6): 357–361. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  6. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon. 43 (6): 1115–1142. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  7. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF) (sa wikang Ingles). Nakuha noong 2007-12-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  8. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF) (sa wikang Ingles). Nakuha noong 2007-12-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  9. "Carbon: Binary compounds" (sa wikang Ingles). Nakuha noong 2007-12-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  11. "Material Properties- Misc Materials". www.nde-ed.org. Nakuha noong 12 Nobyembre 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  12. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  13. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 978-0-8493-0464-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  14. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. Nakuha noong 2008-09-12.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  15. Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. Nakuha noong 2007-11-24.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)